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Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is expected to be applied for devices in various fields owing to its unique characteristics. Establishing a high-productivity manufacturing method which yields high quality films is an important and unresolved issue for the practical applications of MoS2. Among different techniques conducted by researchers all over the world, our approach is cold-wall metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, and we previously reported the deposition of MoS2 with i-Pr2DADMo(CO)3, a novel Mo precursor [S. Ishihara, et al., MRS Advances 3, 379-384 (2018).]. In this study, with the aim of further improving the quality of the MoS2 film using this new Mo precursor, various film formation conditions were controlled and the influence on the film quality was investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used as evaluation techniques of the samples. As a result, mm-scale uniform film was formed with the deposition time less than 30 min. at temperature as low as 400 °C to 500 °C. It was revealed that maintaining low Mo/S supply ratio (SRMo/S) is crucial in fabricating high quality films.
Pregnancy and calving are elements indispensable for dairy production, but the daily milk yield of cows decline as pregnancy progresses, especially during the late stages. Therefore, the effect of stage of pregnancy on daily milk yield must be clarified to accurately estimate the breeding values and lifetime productivity of cows. To improve the genetic evaluation model for daily milk yield and determine the effect of the timing of pregnancy on productivity, we used a test-day model to assess the effects of stage of pregnancy on variance component estimates, daily milk yields and 305-day milk yield during the first three lactations of Holstein cows. Data were 10 646 333 test-day records for the first lactation; 8 222 661 records for the second; and 5 513 039 records for the third. The data were analyzed within each lactation by using three single-trait random regression animal models: one model that did not account for the stage of pregnancy effect and two models that did. The effect of stage of pregnancy on test-day milk yield was included in the model by applying a regression on days pregnant or fitting a separate lactation curve for each days open (days from calving to pregnancy) class (eight levels). Stage of pregnancy did not affect the heritability estimates of daily milk yield, although the additive genetic and permanent environmental variances in late lactation were decreased by accounting for the stage of pregnancy effect. The effects of days pregnant on daily milk yield during late lactation were larger in the second and third lactations than in the first lactation. The rates of reduction of the 305-day milk yield of cows that conceived fewer than 90 days after the second or third calving were significantly (P<0.05) greater than that after the first calving. Therefore, we conclude that differences between the negative effects of early pregnancy in the first, compared with later, lactations should be included when determining the optimal number of days open to maximize lifetime productivity in dairy cows.
We aimed to examine the clinical usefulness of a new World Health Organization classification scheme for salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and to identify the factors most strongly associated with prognosis and outcome.
The clinicopathological features of 45 patients who received treatment for mucoepidermoid carcinoma between 1986 and 2010 were retrospectively investigated.
The overall disease-specific 5-year survival rate was 81.8 per cent. The rate for patients with low-grade tumours (92.5 per cent) was significantly higher than that for patients with intermediate or high-grade tumours (52.2 per cent). Univariate analysis revealed that five factors were significantly associated with five-year survival: age, tumour stage classification, lymph node status, histological grade and treatment method. Four factors were significant in multivariate analysis: age, sex, tumour stage classification and lymph node status.
The new World Health Organization classification was useful in predicting disease progression in patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Patients with high-grade tumours or other prognostic factors positively associated with disease progression should be carefully evaluated and monitored.
The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations between milk yield, somatic cell score (SCS), mastitis, and claw and leg disorders (CLDs) during first lactation in Holstein cows by using a threshold–linear random regression test-day model. We used daily records of milk, fat and protein yields; somatic cell count (SCC); and mastitis and CLD incidences from 46 771 first-lactation Holstein cows in Hokkaido, Japan, that calved between 2000 and 2009. A threshold animal model for binary records (mastitis and CLDs) and linear animal model for yield traits were applied in our multiple trait analysis. For both liabilities and yield traits, additive genetic effects were used as random regression on cubic Legendre polynomials of days on milk. The highest positive genetic correlations between yields and disease incidences (0.36 for milk and mastitis, 0.56 for fat and mastitis, 0.24 for protein and mastitis, 0.32 for milk and CLD, 0.44 for fat and CLD and 0.31 for protein and CLD) were estimated at about the time of peak milk yield (36 to 65 days in milk). Selection focused on early lactation yield may therefore increase the risk of mastitis and CLDs. The positive genetic correlations of SCS with mastitis or CLD incidence imply that selection to reduce SCS in the early stages of lactation would decrease the incidence of both mastitis and CLD.
Small cell carcinoma of the head and neck is rare and has unique histopathological characteristics that make it difficult to diagnose and treat. In this report, the Japanese Lung Cancer Treatment Guidelines were adapted to treat three patients with small cell carcinoma of the head and neck, and outcomes evaluated.
There was one case each of stage I small cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity, stage IV-B small cell carcinoma of the ethmoid sinus, and stage IV-A small cell carcinoma of the submandibular gland. All patients underwent chemoradiotherapy and achieved a partial response.
Only case one underwent surgery after chemoradiotherapy; 31 months after treatment, this patient had suffered no recurrence. Case two died three months after treatment due to bone marrow metastasis. Case three had experienced no progression after 12 months of follow up.
In this small patient series, short-term results were equivalent to or better than usual treatment outcomes for small cell carcinoma of the lung.
We investigated the relationships between conception rates (CRs) at first service in Japanese Holstein heifers (i.e. animals that had not yet had their first calf) and cows and their test-day (TD) milk yields. Data included records of artificial insemination (AI) for heifers and cows that had calved for the first time between 2000 and 2008 and their TD milk yields at 6 through 305 days in milk (DIM) from first through third lactations. CR was defined as a binary trait for which first AI was a failure or success. A threshold-linear animal model was applied to estimate genetic correlations between CRs of heifers or cows and TD milk yield at various lactation stages. Two-trait genetic analyses were performed for every combination of CR and TD milk yield by using the Bayesian method with Gibbs sampling. The posterior means of the heritabilities of CR were 0.031 for heifers, 0.034 for first-lactation cows and 0.028 for second-lactation cows. Heritabilities for TD milk yield increased from 0.324 to 0.433 with increasing DIM but decreased slightly after 210 DIM during first lactation. These heritabilities from the second and third lactations were higher during late stages of lactation than during early stages. Posterior means of the genetic correlations between heifer CR and all TD yields were positive (range, 0.082 to 0.287), but those between CR of cows and milk yields during first or second lactation were negative (range, −0.121 to −0.250). Therefore, during every stage of lactation, selection in the direction of increasing milk yield may reduce CR in cows. The genetic relationships between CR and lactation curve shape were quite weak, because the genetic correlations between CR and TD milk yield were constant during the lactation period.
A total of 105 033 eggs were collected across Japan from June 2010 to January 2011 and tested for Salmonella Enteritidis to provide data for the risk profiling of S. Enteritidis in eggs by the Food Safety Commission of Japan. S. Enteritidis isolates were recovered from three samples (20 eggs/sample) and these samples were different in regard to sampling period, grading and packaging centre and farm. The prevalence of S. Enteritidis in commercial eggs in Japan is estimated at ∼0·003% which was a tenfold decrease in prevalence compared to similar surveillance in the mid 1990s. The decrease in the contamination in commercial eggs is considered a contributory factor in the decrease of foodborne diseases associated with S. Enteritidis in this period.
The Bi-based oxide superconducting wire is one of the most promising materials for practical uses such as electric power transmission, electromagnets and so on. For the higher performances required in these applications, it is necessary to increase the critical current (Ic). We have carried out synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction analysis to improve our manufacturing processes and thus to achieve higher Ic. We have performed in situ X-ray diffraction measurements during the sintering and cooling processes, and observed the decrease of Bi-2223(=(Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox) phase during the cooling process. We have also evaluated the distribution of the crystal orientation in whole wire thickness, by measuring the rocking curves. We have observed that the distribution of the crystal orientation is improved by a refinement of the process conditions.
Cross-linked poly(N-benzyl-4-vinylpyridinium bromide) (BVP resin) was found to be very efficient in removing pathogenic human viruses from aqueous solution. In batch removal experiments using 50 g/1 of BVP resin at 35 °C. the level of infectivity in suspensions of enterovirus. herpes simplex virus, poliovirus, and human immunodeficiency virus was reduced 1000–100000 fold during a 2 h period. Those of coxsackievirus and echovirus were reduced 60–600 fold during 1 h contact. The haemagglutination titres of solutions of human rotavirus, influenza virus, human adenovirus. and Japanese encephalitis virus were reduced 16–256 fold during 30 min of contact. In removal experiments by a continuous flow column method for poliovirus. enterovirus. and coxsackievirus with initial infectivities of less than 105/ml, the infectivity of these viruses was no longer detectable in the effluent solution. For poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and echovirus with initial infectivities higher than 106, 99·8–99·9998% of the input viruses was removed as indicated by the reduction of infectivity.
Few electron optical inventions have revolutionized the TEM/ STEM as profoundly as the spherical aberration (Cs) corrector has. Characterization of technologically important materials increasingly needs to be done at the atomic or even sub-atomic level. This characterization includes determination of atomic structure as well as structural chemistry. With Cs correctors, the sub-Angstrom imaging barrier has been passed, and fast atomic scale spectroscopy is possible. In addition to improvements in resolution, Cs correctors offer a number of other significant improvements and benefits.
The specific activities of α-amylase were measured for two sets of mutation accumulation lines, each set having originated from a different lethal-carrying second chromosome and SM1(Cy) chromosome and having been maintained by a balanced lethal system for about 300 generations. Significant variation was found to have accumulated among lines of both sets. Because of dysgenic crosses in the early generations of mutation accumulation, insertions or deletions of transposable elements in the Amy gene region were suspected of being the cause of this variation. In order to test this possibility, the structural changes in the 14 kb region of these chromosomes that includes the structural genes for α-amylase were investigated by restriction map analysis. We found that most part of the activity variation is due to replacements of a chromosomal region of SM1(Cy), including the structural genes for α-amylase, by the corresponding regions of the lethal chromosomes. One line also contained an insertion in this region but this line has an intermediate activity value. Thus, insertions of transposable elements into the Amy gene region were not found to be responsible for the new variation observed in α-amylase activity. If we remove those lines with structural changes from the analysis, the genetic variance of α-amylase specific activity among lines becomes non-significant in both sets of chromosomes.