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This study examines the relationship between paternal height or body mass index (BMI) and birth weight of their offspring in a Japanese general population. The sample included 33,448 pregnant Japanese women and used fixed data, including maternal, paternal and infant characteristics, from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS), an ongoing nationwide birth cohort study. Relationships between paternal height or BMI and infant birth weight [i.e., small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA)] were examined using a multinomial logistic regression model. Since fetal programming may be a sex-specific process, male and female infants were analyzed separately. Multivariate analysis showed that the higher the paternal height, the higher the odds of LGA and the lower the odds of SGA in both male and female infants. The effects of paternal BMI on the odds of both SGA and LGA in male infants were similar to those of paternal height; however, paternal height had a stronger impact than BMI on the odds of male LGA. In addition, paternal BMI showed no association with the odds of SGA and only a weak association with the odds of LGA in female infants. This cohort study showed that paternal height was associated with birth weight of their offspring and had stronger effects than paternal BMI, suggesting that the impact of paternal height on infant birth weight could be explained by genetic factors. The sex-dependent effect of paternal BMI on infant birth weight may be due to epigenetic effects.
We initiated a long-term and highly frequent monitoring project toward 442 methanol masers at 6.7 GHz (Dec >−30 deg) using the Hitachi 32-m radio telescope in December 2012. The observations have been carried out daily, monitoring a spectrum of each source with intervals of 9–10 days. In September 2015, the number of the target sources and intervals were redesigned into 143 and 4–5 days, respectively. This monitoring provides us complete information on how many sources show periodic flux variations in high-mass star-forming regions, which have been detected in 20 sources with periods of 29.5–668 days so far (e.g., Goedhart et al. 2004). We have already obtained new detections of periodic flux variations in 31 methanol sources with periods of 22–409 days. These periodic flux variations must be a unique tool to investigate high-mass protostars themselves and their circumstellar structure on a very tiny spatial scale of 0.1–1 au.
This study evaluated the prognosis of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss when treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy and intravenous steroids.
The clinical data for 334 patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss treated by hyperbaric oxygen therapy and intravenous steroids at our hospital were retrospectively reviewed. These data included the initial averaged five-frequency hearing level, patient age, interval between onset of symptoms and treatment, vertigo as a complication, and co-existence of diabetes mellitus.
The overall improvement rate was 69.2 per cent, including better improvement (25.5 per cent), good improvement (21.0 per cent) and fair improvement (22.7 per cent).
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy appears to confer a significant additional therapeutic benefit when used in combination with steroid therapy for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. If performed early, hyperbaric oxygen therapy may bring about hearing improvement in many patients who are unresponsive to initial therapy.
There is limited information available regarding the benefits and outcomes of resection of pulmonary metastases arising from head and neck cancers.
A retrospective review was performed of 21 patients who underwent resection of pulmonary metastases of primary head and neck malignancies at Hamamatsu University Hospital. Clinical staging, treatment methods, pathological subtype (particularly squamous cell carcinoma), disease-free interval and overall survival were evaluated.
The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates of the study participants were 67.0 per cent and 55.0 per cent, respectively, as determined by the Kaplan–Meier method. The prognosis for patients with a disease-free interval of less than 24 months was poor compared to those with a disease-free interval of greater than 24 months (p = 0.0234).
Patients with short disease-free intervals, and possibly those who are older than 60 years, should be categorised as having severe disease. However, pulmonary metastases from head and neck malignancies are potentially curable by surgical resection.
We analyze photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) using a hyperspectral imager that records spectrally resolved luminescence images of solar cell absorbers. The system is calibrated to yield the luminescence flux in absolute values. This system enables to quantitatively image physical parameters such as the photovoltage with an uncertainty of less than 30mV. The wide field illumination, low power excitation and fast acquisition brings new insights compared to classical setups such as confocal microscope. Several types of absorbers have been analyzed. For instance, we can investigate spatial fluctuations of the Quasi Fermi Levels splitting in CIGS polycristalline absorbers and link those fluctuations to transport properties. The method is general to the point that third generation PV cells absorbers can also be evaluated. We illustrate the great potential of our setup by imaging carrier temperature in Hot Carriers Solar cells absorbers and quasi Fermi levels splitting in Intermediate Band Solar cells.
Water-splitting by using electric power produced by solar cells is promising system to produce hydrogen without fossil fuels. Oxygen evolving catalyst is, however, major problem to prevent using this system widely because precious materials are used in the catalyst. Considering from the photosynthesis II of plants, the compound of Ca-Mn-O is one of the candidates for the oxygen evolving catalyst. In this study, the synthesis condition and the oxygen evolving electrocatalytic activity of CaMn2O4•xH2O are investigated. The overpotential at 0.1 mA/cm2 was 0.28 V when using the electrode of carbon paste and CaMn2O4•H2O with the weight ratio of 3:1.
The correlation of stress in Silicon Carbide (SiC) crystal and frequency shift in micro- Raman spectroscopy was determined by an experimental method. We applied uniaxial stress to 4H- and 6H-SiC single crystal square bar specimen shaped with (0001) and (11-20) faces by four point bending test, under measuring the frequency shift in micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results revealed that the linearity coefficients between stress and Raman shift were -1.96 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/4)E2 on 4H-SiC (0001) face, -2.08 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/4)E2 on 4H-SiC (11-20) face and -2.70 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/6)E2 on 6H-SiC (0001) face. Determination of these coefficients has made it possible to evaluate the residual stress in SiC crystal quantitatively by micro-Raman spectroscopy. We evaluated the residual stress in SiC substrate that was grown in our laboratory by utilizing the results obtained in this study. The result of estimation indicated that the SiC substrate with a diameter of 6 inch remained residual stress as low as ±15 MPa.
We present VLBI maps of the 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission in 32 sources obtained using the Japanese VLBI Network (JVN) and the East-Asian VLBI Network (EAVN). All of the observed sources provide new VLBI maps, and the spatial morphologies have been classified into five categories similar to the results obtained from European VLBI Network observations (Bartkiewicz et al. 2009). The 32 methanol sources are being monitored to measure the relative proper motions of the methanol maser spots.
We present the internal proper motion of 6.7-GHz methanol masers in S269, an Ultra Compact HII region. The maser distribution in S269 consists of several maser groups, and the spatial structure of the main groups A and B are consistent with the past VLBI image. The remarkable result of comparing the two VLBI maps is that 6.7-GHz methanol maser distribution and velocity range within each group have been kept for eight years. Angular separation between the two groups A and B increases by 3.6 mas, which corresponds to a velocity of 11.5 km s−1.
We present the radial velocity acceleration of the 6.7 GHz methanol maser in a high-mass star-forming region Monoceros R2 (Mon R2). The methanol maser is associated with an infrared source IRS3. The methanol maser of Mon R2 shows at least three spectral features having radial velocities (Vlsr) of 10.8, 12.7, and 13.2 km s−1. The radial velocity of a feature at Vlsr = 12.7 km s−1 has changed during ten years from Aug. 1999 to Oct. 2009, corresponding to an acceleration of 0.08 km s−1 yr−1. We observed the 6.7 GHz methanol masers of Mon R2 in Oct. 2008 using the Japanese VLBI Network (JVN). Compared with the previous VLBI image obtained in Nov. 1998 using the European VLBI Network (EVN), the maser feature at Vlsr = 12.7 km s−1 showed relative proper motions of ~2.5 mas yr−1 (about 10 km s−1 at 0.83 kpc) toward the intensity peak of IRS3. The radial velocity acceleration could be caused by an inflow from a disk or envelope around a high-mass young stellar object (YSO) at IRS3.
NEWAGE is a direction-sensitive dark matter search experiment with a gaseous
time-projection chamber. We improved the direction-sensitive dark matter limits by our
underground measurement. In this paper, R&D activities sinse the first underground
measurement are described.
In this study, we fabricated and examined a series of multiphase type composites constructed of Nb-doped SrTiO3 / TiO2 fine particles. The composition of the composites and the sintering temperatures were selected in a two-phase region where a perovskite SrTiO3 and a rutile TiO2 phases coexist. The composites obtained here were found to commonly have a mosaic type texture constructed of TiO2 and SrTiO3 fine particles with a typical size of about 500 nm. In some samples we also found additive phases such as Sr6Ti7Nb9O42. The thermal conductivity values measured for the most samples with different contents are ranged between 2 and 5 Wm-1K-1. The values are apparently lower than the value for single crystal SrTiO3 samples presented in literature. A sample with rather low relative density of about 80% showed a quite low thermal conductivity, about 1 Wm-1K-1. Taking account the other TE data, e.g. Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity, we calculated dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, to be at maximum 0.24 at 600°C.
Liquid–liquid wetting failure is investigated in a two-dimensional Couette system with two immiscible fluids of arbitrary viscosity. The problem is solved exactly using a sharp interface treatment of hydrodynamics (lubrication theory) as a function of the control parameters – capillary number, viscosity ratio and separation of scale – i.e. the slip length versus the macroscopic size of the system. The transition at a critical capillary number, from a stationary to a non-stationary interface, is studied while changing the control parameters. Comparisons with similar existing analyses for other geometries, such as the Landau–Levich problem, are also carried out. A numerical method of analysis is also presented, based on diffuse interface models obtained from multiphase extensions of the lattice Boltzmann equation. Sharp interface and diffuse interface models are quantitatively compared, indicating the correct limit of applicability of the diffuse interface models.
We propose a parallel resistance model (PRM) in which total resistance (Rtotal) is given by the parallel connection of resistance of a filament (Rfila) and that of a film excluding the filament (Rexcl)—that is, 1/Rtotal = 1/Rfila + 1/Rexcl—to understand direct current (dc) electric properties of resistive random-access memory (ReRAM). To prove the validity of this model, the dependence of the resistance on temperature, R(T), and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of RHRS of Pt/NiO/Pt on the area of a top electrode, S, are investigated. It is clarified that both the R(T) and RSD depended on S, and all such dependencies can be explained by the PRM. The fact that Rtotal is decided by the magnitude relation between Rfila and Rexcl makes transport properties S-dependent and hinders the correct understanding of ReRAM. Smaller S is essential to observe the intrinsic transport properties of ReRAM filaments.
Newly developed interferon-gamma release assays have become commercially available to detect tuberculosis (TB) infection in adults. However, little is known about their performance in children. We compared test results between the QuantiFERON-TB® Gold test (QFT) and tuberculin skin test (TST) in young children living with pulmonary TB patients in Cambodia. Of 195 children tested with both QFT and TST, the TST-positive rate of 24% was significantly higher than the QFT-positive rate of 17%. The agreement between the test results was considerable (κ-coefficient 0·63). Positive rates increased from 6% to 32% for QFT and from 15% to 43% for TST, according to the sputum smear grades of the index cases. The presence of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) scars did not significantly affect the results of TST or QFT in a logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, QFT can be a substitute for TST in detecting latent TB infection in childhood contacts aged ⩽5 years, especially in those who may have a false-positive TST due to BCG vaccination or non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection.
A new simulation model is developed, in which the interaction between the macroscopic and microscopic plasma processes is able to be taken into account self-consistently. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation are directly connected and performed simultaneously. This MHD–PIC connection model is first applied to the study of the quiet auroral arc formation process. It is an example of our challenge to create the holistic simulation framework, that is, the heterogeneous schemes that can be unified by the state-of-the-art numerical technique. In this paper, we will explain the algorithm of our new model and show the results which have been calculated on the Earth Simulator.
A new fabrication method of SiGe-on-Insulator (SGOI) and Ge-on-Insulator (GOI) structures are presented as well as the application to high-mobility channel CMOS devices. This method, the Ge-condensation technique, consists of epitaxial growth of a SiGe layer with a low Ge fraction on an SOI substrate and successive oxidation at high temperatures, which can be incorporated in conventional CMOS processes. During the oxidation, Ge atoms are pushed out from the oxide layer and condensed in the remaining SiGe layer. The interface between the Si and SiGe layers is disappeared due to the interdiffusion of Si and Ge atoms. Eventually, an SGOI layer with a higher Ge fraction is formed on the buried oxide layer. The Ge fraction in the SGOI layer can be controlled by the oxidation time because total amount of Ge atoms in the SGOI layer is conserved throughout the oxidation process. We found that the lattice relaxation in the SGOI layer also can be controlled through the initial SiGe thickness. P- and n-type strained SOI MOSFETs, which were fabricated on relaxed SGOI substrates formed by this technique, exhibited mobility enhancement of 50% and 80%, respectively. CMOS ring oscillators comprised of the MOSFETs exhibited reduction in propagation delay of 70%-30% compared to a conventional SOI-CMOS device. Ultrathin-body strained SGOI pMOSFETs with high Ge fraction and surface channels were also fabricated by this technique. These devices exhibited hole-mobility enhancement factors up to 2.3. Furthermore, Ge-on-Insulator (GOI) structures with thicknesses less than 10 nm were realized for ultrathin body GOI-CMOS applications by using the Ge-condensation technique. In conclusion, the Ge-condensation technique is a promising technique for fabricating various types of high-mobility channel-on-insulator devices.
We report a photoreflectance (PR) characterization of InP/GaAsSb double-heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) epitaxial wafers grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The origin of the Franz-Keldysh oscillations (FKOs) in the PR spectra was identified by step etching of the samples. FKOs from the InP emitter region were observed in the wafer with low recombination forward current at the emitter-base (E/B) heterojunction. In contrast, they did not appear when recombination current was dominant. The absence of the FKOs from the emitter indicates the high concentration of the recombination centers at the E/B heterojunction. We have also measured PR spectra from InAlP/GaAsSb/InP DHBT wafers. Pronounced FKOs from InAlP emitter reflect the suppression of recombination at E/B heterojunctions.
Although in the western world there has been a long term decline in the consumption of eggs, Asian egg consumption is on an upward trend, even in developed Asian nations like Japan. However, the latter part of the 1990s has seen a slower rate of growth in consumption. This study represents an attempt to analyse the present state of affairs by estimating the income elasticity of demand for eggs in selected countries. The annual increase in the consumption of eggs is high because of the very low consumption in developing countries. Production is also on the increase as a result of improvements in local breeds and the ready availability of high yielding birds even in rural areas. Based on estimates, countries were categorised into three groups – those of high income elasticity (Malaysia, China), medium elasticity (Sri Lanka, Pakistan) and low elasticity (Japan, Korea). Increasing disposable household income will continue to result in an expansion in the production and consumption of eggs in Asia. By the year 2010 over 60% of the world's population will live in Asia; furthermore, the growth in disposable income and purchasing power coupled with rapidly changing food habits will make eggs one of the more popular protein-rich foods with both the rural and urban populations in Asia.