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Reduced gray matter volumes in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) have been reported in patients with schizophrenia. Such volumetric abnormalities might denote alterations in cortical thickness, surface area, local gyrification or all of these factors. The STG can be anatomically divided into five subregions using automatic parcellation in FreeSurfer: lateral aspect of the STG, anterior transverse temporal gyrus of Heschl gyrus (HG), planum polare (PP) of the STG, planum temporale (PT) of the STG and transverse temporal sulcus.
We acquired magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 3T scans from 40 age- and sex-matched patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy subjects, and the scans were automatically processed using FreeSurfer. General linear models were used to assess group differences in regional volumes and detailed thickness, surface area and local gyrification.
As expected, patients with schizophrenia had significantly smaller bilateral STG volumes than healthy subjects. Of the five subregions in the STG, patients with schizophrenia showed significantly and marginally reduced volumes in the lateral aspect of the STG and PT of the STG bilaterally compared with healthy subjects. The volumetric alteration in bilateral lateral STG was derived from both the cortical thickness and surface area but not local gyrification. There was no significant laterality of the alteration in the lateral STG between patients and controls and no correlation among the structures and clinical characteristics.
These findings suggest that of five anatomical subregions in the STG, the lateral STG is one of the most meaningful regions for brain pathophysiology in schizophrenia.
Laser-based compact MeV X-ray sources are useful for a variety of applications such as radiography and active interrogation of nuclear materials. MeV X rays are typically generated by impinging the intense laser onto ~mm-thick high-Z foil. Here, we have characterized such a MeV X-ray source from 120 TW (80 J, 650 fs) laser interaction with a 1 mm-thick tantalum foil. Our measurements show X-ray temperature of 2.5 MeV, flux of 3 × 1012 photons/sr/shot, beam divergence of ~0.1 sr, conversion efficiency of ~1%, that is, ~1 J of MeV X rays out of 80 J incident laser, and source size of 80 m. Our measurement also shows that MeV X-ray yield and temperature is largely insensitive to nanosecond laser contrasts up to 10−5. Also, preliminary measurements of similar MeV X-ray source using a double-foil scheme, where the laser-driven hot electrons from a thin foil undergoing relativistic transparency impinging onto a second high-Z converter foil separated by 50–400 m, show MeV X-ray yield more than an order of magnitude lower compared with the single-foil results.
Public stigma alters attitudes towards people with mental illness, and is a particular concern for young people since most mental health problems occur in adolescence and young adulthood. However, little is known about the long-term effects of repeated filmed social contact (FSC) on reducing mental health-related stigma among young adults in the general population, compared with self-instructional Internet search (INS) and control interventions.
This study is a parallel-group randomised controlled trial over 12 months conducted in Tokyo, Japan. A total of 259 university students (male n = 150, mean age = 20.0 years, s.d. = 1.2) were recruited from 20 colleges and universities between November 2013 and July 2014, without being provided information about the mental health-related survey or trial. Participants were assigned to one of three groups before completion of the baseline survey (FSC/INS/control = 89/83/87). The FSC group received a computer-based 30-min social contact film with general mental health education and five follow-up web-based FSCs at 2-month intervals. The INS group undertook a 30-min search for mental health-related information with five follow-up web-based reminders for self-instructional searches at 2-month intervals. The control group played PC games and had no follow-up intervention. The main outcome measures were the future (intended behaviour) domain of the Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale at 12 months after the intervention. Analysis was conducted in September 2015.
At the 12-month follow-up, 218 participants completed the survey (84.1%, 75:70:73). The FSC group showed the greatest change at the 12-month follow-up (FSC: mean change 2.11 [95% CI 1.49, 2.73], INS: 1.04 [0.29, 1.80], control: 0.71 [0.09, 1.33]; FSC v. INS p = 0.037, FSC v. controls p = 0.004). No adverse events were reported during the follow-up period.
FSC was more successful in reducing stigma at 12 months after intervention than INS or control interventions. FSC could be used to reduce stigma in educational lectures and anti-stigma campaigns targeted at young people.
This study is registered at UMIN-CTR (No. UMIN000012239).
In 2013, an unusual increase of paratyphoid fever cases in travellers returning from Cambodia was reported in Japan. From December 2012 to September 2013, 18 cases of Salmonella Paratyphi A infection were identified. Microbiological analyses revealed that most isolates had the same clonal identity, although the epidemiological link between these cases remains unclear. It was inferred that the outbreak was caused by a common and persistent source in Cambodia that was likely to have continued during 2014. The information of surveillance and laboratory data from cases arising in travellers from countries with limited surveillance systems should be timely shared with the country of origin.
Over 30 funerary bundles were excavated in 2005 from a large chamber tomb at the prehispanic religious center of Pachacamac on the central coast of Peru. The largest and most elaborate bundle was found in the innermost part of the tomb, tightly surrounded by other bundles. We hypothesized that this bundle contained the deceased leader of a social group whose members collectively cared for their ancestor's bundle (for example, by rewrapping it) and continued to use the tomb to inter deceased individuals from subsequent generations. We tested this hypothesis by dating samples from different layers of the wrapping materials and soft tissue from the bodies and conducting a Bayesian analysis of the resultant dates. We determined carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in the diet of the interred individuals to correct for marine reservoir effects. Our findings suggest that (1) rewrapping did not occur; (2) the tomb was used for over 500 years starting at cal A.D. 1000; and (3) existing bundles were reshuffled each time new bundles were introduced. Overall, diverse lines of evidence indicate that the tomb had a complex use history and contained individuals with diverse geographical and social origins. This challenges conventional thinking about the social and chronological significance of coexisting bundles in large tombs.
Genotypes are associated with the natural course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and response to antiviral therapy for HCV. HCV genotype 1b has been the dominant genotype in Japan, where the prevention of HCV transmission through blood transfusion or nosocomial infection has been established since 1990. The distribution of HCV genotype was investigated based on patient's birth year in 5515 HCV-infected Japanese individuals at three institutions from different areas of Japan. At all three institutions, the proportion of HCV genotype 1b decreased and was <50% in individuals born after 1970. By contrast, the percentage of HCV genotype 2b increased in subsequent birth cohorts after 1920–1929. Significant changes in HCV genotype distribution were observed across Japan regardless of area.
A histopathological study was performed to clarify the characteristics of granuloma formation and liver fibrosis in Schistosoma mekongi infection in comparison with S. japonicum infection. Mice were exposed to S. mekongi (Laotian strain) and S. japonicum (Japanese strain) cercariae, and were dissected at 6, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks post-exposure. In the liver, granulomas in S. mekongi infection were cellular, initially organized with foam cells, and continuously appeared in the intralobular area, while granulomas in S. japonicum infection were fibrous and did not continuously appear in the intralobular area. Portal fibrosis was not seen in S. mekongi infection, but was commonly seen in S. japonicum infection in the later weeks. Granulomas in the small intestine were seen mainly in the submucosa with foam cells in S. mekongi infection and without foam cells in S. japonicum infection. The lung granulomas contained mainly histiocytes in both S. mekongi and S. japonicum infection. The absence of portal fibrosis in S. mekongi infection allows schistosome eggs to infiltrate into the intralobular area continuously, which can be what lies behind the ultrasonographic differences; the echogenic network pattern as was seen in S. japonicum infection, has not been noted in S. mekongi infection.
Sixty-nine strains of Vibrio cholerae 01 isolated at different times were analysed to investigate if there were any differences among the 01 strains isolated before, during and after the advent of the O139 serogroup. Of the 69 01 strains examined, 68 belonged to the Ogawa serotype while one belonged to the Inaba serotype. With the exception of one strain all other strains of V. cholerae 01 belonged to the eltor biotype. A single O1 strain isolated before the emergence of the O139 serogroup could not be classified as either eltor or classical biotype because it was resistant to both classical and eltor specific bacteriophages. Marked variations in the susceptibility to antibiotics of V. cholerae O1 isolated during the different periods were observed. In addition, strains of V. cholerae isolated after the epidemic of serogroup O139 in Calcutta showed an expanding R-type with resistance to a variety of drugs as compared to the 01 strains isolated before the advent of the O139 serogroup. From this study, it is clear that there is a substantial mobility in genetic elements of V. cholerae Ol which necessitates a continuous monitoring to keep abreast of the changing traits of the etiologic agent of cholera.
The distribution and virulence of Vibrio cholerae serogroups other than O1 and O139 in India before, during and after the advent of O139 serogroup was investigated. A total of 68 strains belonging to 31 different ‘O’ serogroups were identified during the study period. With the exception of O53, there was no spatial or temporal clustering of any particular non-O1 non-O139 serogroup at any given place. Two of the 68 strains examined produced cholera toxin (CT) which could only be partially absorbed with anti-CT immunoglobulin G. Tissue culture assay revealed that some of the non-O1 non-O139 strains produced factors which evoked either a cell rounding or cell elongation response depending upon the medium used. This study indicates that serogroups other than O1 and O139 should also be continuously monitored.
Submicron-sized hydroxyapatite (HAp) particles were loaded on the titanium plate by anodic oxidation over spark discharge voltage in HAp-containing bath. The biocompatibility and bioactivity were drastically improved by HAp deposition on the anodic oxide films. The affinity with living bone was the following order: anodized titanium plate with HAp > anodized titanium plate ≫ titanium. Bone-bonding strength between HAp-loaded titanium plate and living bone after 4 weeks' implant was much higher than that of anodized titanium plate.
A nationwide study was undertaken to determine the susceptibility to penicillin and serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Japan. S. pneumoniae was isolated from 114 adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia over 22 months at 20 hospitals and medical centres in different regions in Japan. All but five isolates were from sputum. Forty-eight isolates (42·1%) were susceptible, 40 (35·1%) showed intermediate resistance (MIC, 0·12–1·0 μg/ml) and 26 (22·8%) were resistant (MIC, [ges ]2·0 μg/ml) to penicillin G. All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone (breakpoint 1 μg/ml), imipenem (4 μg/ml) and vancomycin (4 μg/ml). Most were resistant to erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin; only two were resistant to levofloxacin. Differences were found in the distribution of serotypes among isolates showing susceptibility to penicillin (predominant types 3, 6B, and 19F), intermediate resistance (6B, 14, 19F, and 23F) and full resistance (19F and 23F). PFGE typing showed that 14 of the 25 strains of serotype 19F had a single DNA profile, pattern A, a pattern closely similar to that of the Taiwan multidrug-resistant 19F clone. Twelve pattern A strains were not susceptible to penicillin but carried the macrolide resistance gene mef(A). The DNA profiles of the 15 strains of 23F were also heterogeneous but six were highly similar (pattern b) yet distinct from the Spanish multidrug-resistant 23F clone although possibly related to the Taiwan multidrug-resistant 23F clone. The pattern b strains were not susceptible to penicillin and also harboured either mef(A) or erm(B). Our results indicate that multidrug-resistant pneumococci are spreading rapidly in Japan. Efforts to prevent the spread of the pandemic multidrug-resistant serotypes should be intensified.
Between October 1999 and May 2000, a total of 28 strains of influenza C virus were isolated in four Japanese prefectures: Yamagata, Miyagi, Saitama and Hiroshima. Antigenic analysis showed that the 28 isolates were divided into three distinct antigenic groups, and viruses belonging to different antigenic groups were co-circulating in each of the four prefectures. Phylogenetic analysis of the seven protein genes demonstrated that the viruses having a similar genome composition spread in various areas of Japan during the same period. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis showed that most of the influenza C viruses isolated in various areas of the world between the 1970s and 1980s were closely related to the contemporary Japanese viruses in all gene segments. These observations suggest that the influenza C viruses cause epidemics in some communities during the same season and that antigenically and genetically similar influenza C viruses spread throughout Japan and may be circulating worldwide.
Silicon thin films grown by CVD processes take various structures depending on the reaction conditions. In the case of low-temperature CVD, hydrogen coverage on the silicon substrate affects the growth as well. In order to analyze the effect of hydrogen coverage on elementary surface reactions, we performed molecular dynamics simulations in which gasphase radicals, H and SiH3, fell onto a hydrogen-terminated silicon surface. We prepared monohydride and dihydride Si(100) surfaces and modified their hydrogen coverage in a certain area in the range from 0.5 to 2.0 monolayers so as to describe the growing surface. As a result of our simulation, H radicals mainly caused H adsorption and H abstraction reactions and altered the hydrogen coverage of the surface. While reactions of SiH3 radicals with monohydride or dihydride surfaces rarely occurred, these radicals reacted more frequently with the modified surfaces. These results indicate that the change in the local hydrogen coverage caused by H radicals may induce subsequent surface reactions
We review our capacitor technology using (Ba,Sr)TiO3 (BST) as a capacitor dielectric for dynamic random access memory (DRAM) application. Among a number of issues for BST capacitor process integration in DRAM cells, two important technologies are discussed. As an electrode technology, we propose All PErovskite Capacitor (APEC) technology, in which conducting perovskite oxide of SrRuO3 (SRO) is used as capacitor electrodes. For chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of BST, we propose In-situ Multi-Step (IMS) process, which is a sequential repetition of low temperature deposition of ultra thin BST film and crystallization in the same chamber. By using APEC technology and IMS CVD process of BST, we can simultaneously achieve good electrical characteristics (low leakage current and high permittivity) and good step coverage. The combination of APEC technology and IMS CVD process of BST is a promising BST capacitor process technology for future DRAMs.
One hundred and six patients suffering from severe
dehydrating diarrhoea were studied of
whom 36 patients were positive for Vibrio cholerae.
Out of 36, 15 were positive for V. cholerae
O1, 10 for V. cholerae O139 and 11 for V.
cholerae non-O1 non-O139. O1 and O139 were
positive for the 301-bp ctxA amplicon and 471-bp
tcpA amplicon indicating that the strains
possessed toxigenic capability whereas no non-O1 non-O139
strain possessed ctxA or tcpA
genes. Post-admission severity of purging and amount of
ORS required were less in the
V. cholerae non-O1 non-O139 group
(P<0·05) compared to the V.
cholerae O1 and O139
groups. It appears from this study that a cholera-like
clinical condition can be caused in the
absence of CT as exemplified by strains of non-O1 non-O139.
Micron size particulate arrays of amorphous R-Co (R = Sm and Gd) alloys with a thickness of 200 nm were fabricated on top of a 20 nm thick Nb film by means of e-beam lithography and sputter deposition. The arrays consist of 2 × 2 μm2 square particles with a spatial periodicity of 4 μm along an edge of the square. Interesting oscillations due to the fluxoid quantization were observed both in the transition lines and the magnetization curves of the underlying Nb film. The superconducting state of the Nb film was found to be modulated by stray fields of the square magnetic particles.
Sub-micron size ferromagnetic Fe wires were also prepared in order to investigate the magnetoresistance effect associated with pinning and depinning processes of a magnetic domain wall confined in the wire. Low temperature transport, Lorentz microscopy and electron holography measurements demonstrated a clear change in resistivity associated with the depinning of a pinned single domain wall.