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We present 63 new multi-site radial velocity (RV) measurements of the K1III giant HD 76920, which was recently reported to host the most eccentric planet known to orbit an evolved star. We focused our observational efforts on the time around the predicted periastron passage and achieved near-continuous phase coverage of the corresponding RV peak. By combining our RV measurements from four different instruments with previously published ones, we confirm the highly eccentric nature of the system and find an even higher eccentricity of
$e=0.8782 \pm 0.0025$
, an orbital period of
, and a minimum mass of
for the planet. The uncertainties in the orbital elements are greatly reduced, especially for the period and eccentricity. We also performed a detailed spectroscopic analysis to derive atmospheric stellar parameters, and thus the fundamental stellar parameters (
$M_*, R_*, L_*$
), taking into account the parallax from Gaia DR2, and independently determined the stellar mass and radius using asteroseismology. Intriguingly, at periastron, the planet comes to within 2.4 stellar radii of its host star’s surface. However, we find that the planet is not currently experiencing any significant orbital decay and will not be engulfed by the stellar envelope for at least another 50–80 Myr. Finally, while we calculate a relatively high transit probability of 16%, we did not detect a transit in the TESS photometry.
As texts for an exemplary analysis of children’s literature through the lens of food studies scholarship, Laura Ingalls Wilder’s Little House books demonstrate the overlooked but fundamental role that food can play in the ideological controversies current in American western frontier studies. Ideologically, Wilder agrees with Frederick Jackson Turner’s traditional view of western expansion as a predominantly white male arena; nonetheless her novels inherently complicate and challenge his monolithic view of settlement through her focus on women’s experiences on the frontier. Recent Wilder scholarship and contemporary new western history both deconstruct Turner’s views. Applying food studies scholarship, such as Montanari’s Food Is Culture, reveals how the innovation required to grow, gather, and prepare food on the frontier, as chronicled by Wilder, worked to transport and re-form cultural identity across the “wilderness” of the Great Plains as settlers learned they had to adapt foodways to their environment for physical and cultural survival.
The Shang (c. 1500–1045 BC) and Zhou dynasties (c. 1045–771 BC) of China are famous for their sophisticated ritual bronze vessels. Sourcing the leaded tin-bronze has, however, proved to be a challenge. A new systematic approach to metal chemistry uses trace elements and isotopes to characterise the underlying circulation pattern. It reveals the complexity of the copper sources on which the late Shang capital at Anyang depended for its bronzes, suggesting the transport of copper from distant regions in the south, on the Yangtze, and from north-east China. The new interpretational system furthers our understanding of the network on which successive Chinese dynasties depended for copper, lead and tin, and attempts to give equal weight to the archaeological and chemical data.
Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infects 95% of the global population and is associated with up to 2% of cancers globally. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels to EBV have been shown to be heritable and associated with developing malignancies. We, therefore, performed a pilot genome-wide association analysis of anti-EBV IgG traits in an African population, using a combined approach including array genotyping, whole-genome sequencing and imputation to a panel with African sequence data. In 1562 Ugandans, we identify a variant in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQA1, rs9272371 (p = 2.6 × 10−17) associated with anti-EBV nuclear antigen-1 responses. Trans-ancestry meta-analysis and fine-mapping with European-ancestry individuals suggest the presence of distinct HLA class II variants driving associations in Uganda. In addition, we identify four putative, novel, very rare African-specific loci with preliminary evidence for association with anti-viral capsid antigen IgG responses which will require replication for validation. These findings reinforce the need for the expansion of such studies in African populations with relevant datasets to capture genetic diversity.
Eta Carinae is one of the most massive observable binaries. Yet determination of its orbital and physical parameters is hampered by obscuring winds. However the effects of the strong, colliding winds changes with phase due to the high orbital eccentricity. We wanted to improve measures of the orbital parameters and to determine the mechanisms that produce the relatively brief, phase-locked minimum as detected throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. We conducted intense monitoring of the He ii λ4686 line in η Carinae for 10 months in the year 2014, gathering ~300 high S/N spectra with ground- and space-based telescopes. We also used published spectra at the FOS4 SE polar region of the Homunculus, which views the minimum from a different direction. We used a model in which the He ii λ4686 emission is produced by two mechanisms: a) one linked to the intensity of the wind-wind collision which occurs along the whole orbit and is proportional to the inverse square of the separation between the companion stars; and b) the other produced by the ‘bore hole’ effect which occurs at phases across the periastron passage. The opacity (computed from 3D SPH simulations) as convolved with the emission reproduces the behavior of equivalent widths both for direct and reflected light. Our main results are: a) a demonstration that the He ii λ4686 light curve is exquisitely repeatable from cycle to cycle, contrary to previous claims for large changes; b) an accurate determination of the longitude of periastron, indicating that the secondary star is ‘behind’ the primary at periastron, a dispute extended over the past decade; c) a determination of the time of periastron passage, at ~4 days after the onset of the deep light curve minimum; and d) show that the minimum is simultaneous for observers at different lines of sight, indicating that it is not caused by an eclipse of the secondary star, but rather by the immersion of the wind-wind collision interior to the inner wind of the primary.
Introduction / Innovation Concept: Skillful performance is central to the provision of quality healthcare. Well-organized, deliberate practice with instruction and feedback leads to the best learning and patient outcomes. Professionals in rural/remote locations often face significant challenges in maintaining procedural proficiency and delivering acute care medical services. This is especially important with low-frequency high-stakes procedures. Simulation can play an important role in skills maintenance but limited access to simulation labs and resources in rural areas due to time, cost and distance are often prohibitive. Mobile telesimulation has the potential to facilitate high-quality instruction and overcome these barriers. Our goal is to develop a mobile simulation unit (MSU) that uses acute-care telemedicine mentoring techniques to meet the needs of rural physicians. Methods: The MSU design process is a prototype development series with qualitative results from each prototype (A and B) informing design and development of the next. This serves as an assessment of the functionality and set-up of the MSU for housing the simulation equipment/mannequin and providing an acceptable learning environment. The final design (C) will be evaluated for educational effectiveness. Medical students will be taught endotracheal intubation on a mannequin in the MSU under one of 2 conditions. The experimental group will receive instruction, demonstration and feedback from an expert in the telesimulation lab at Memorial University. The control group will receive the same instructions and feedback face-to-face from an expert located in the MSU. Participants will complete a retention test 1 week after the intervention. Performance between the 2 groups will be compared and user satisfaction will be assessed. Curriculum, Tool, or Material: The MSU will be a portable, inflatable structure equipped with telecommunication equipment to provide efficient interaction between the rural/remote learner and their instructor at a different site. The design and components of the MSU will facilitate easy transport and deployment for telesimulation in rural/remote areas. A combination of fixed and wearable cameras will facilitate instruction, demonstration and feedback to the learner. Conclusion: Mobile telesimulation may play an important role in overcoming the barriers of geography, cost and access to expert instruction. Implications of this research are far reaching and extend beyond healthcare education and training.
To demonstrate that the elevated prevalence of migraine in patients with vertigo disorders is due to enhanced sensitivity to dizziness, which could cause migraineurs to seek more, or earlier, medical care for vertigo disorders, confounding the ability to show causation.
This case–control study investigated whether migraineurs perceive dizziness more intensely than non-migraineurs by comparing caloric responses in migraineurs, non-migraineurs and possible migraineurs. The summed caloric responses in the best responding ear were reviewed.
The migraine group had higher caloric response values, with a mean of 37.97 degrees per second, which was statistically significant when compared to the values for the possible migraine group (30.74 degrees per second (p < 0.05)) and the non-migraine group (30.70 degrees per second (p < 0.001)).
The findings suggest that migraineurs experience vestibular stimuli more intensely compared to non-migraineurs, which might explain the association of migraine with vestibular disorders in general.
We present improvement and confirmation of identified frequencies and pulsation modes for the γ Doradus star HD 189631. This work improves upon previous studies by incorporating a significant number of additional spectra and precise determination of frequencies. Four frequencies were identified for this star: 1.6774 ± 0.0002 d−1, 1.4174 ± 0.0002 d−1, 0.0714 ± 0.0002 d−1, and 1.8228 ± 0.0002 d−1 which were identified with the modes (l,m) = (1, +1), (1, +1), (2, −2), and (1, +1) respectively. These findings are in agreement with the most recent literature. The prevalence of (l,m) = (1, +1) modes in γ Doradus stars is starting to become apparent and we discuss this result.
The gravity modes present in γ Doradus stars probe the deep stellar interiors and are thus of particular interest in asteroseismology. For the MUSICIAN programme at the University of Canterbury, we obtain extensive high-resolution echelle spectra of γ Dor stars from the Mt John University Observatory in New Zealand. We analyze these to obtain the pulsational frequencies and identify these with the multiple pulsational modes excited in the star. A summary of recent results from our spectroscopic mode-identification programme is given.
We carried out an extensive photometric and spectroscopic investigation of the SPB binary, HD 25558 (see Fig. 1 for the time and geographic distribution of the observations). The ~2000 spectra obtained at 13 observatories during 5 observing seasons, the ground-based multi-colour light curves and the photometric data from the MOST satellite revealed that this object is a double-lined spectroscopic binary with a very long orbital period of about 9 years. We determined the physical parameters of the components, and have found that both lie within the SPB instability strip. Accordingly, both components show line-profile variations consistent with stellar pulsations. Altogether, 11 independent frequencies and one harmonic frequency were identified in the data. The observational data do not allow the inference of a reliable orbital solution, thus, disentangling cannot be performed on the spectra. Since the lines of the two components are never completely separated, the analysis is very complicated. Nevertheless, pixel-by-pixel variability analysis of the cross-correlated line profiles was successful, and we were able to attribute all the frequencies to the primary or secondary component. Spectroscopic and photometric mode-identification was also performed for several of these frequencies of both binary components. The spectroscopic mode-identification results suggest that the inclination and rotation of the two components are rather different. While the primary is a slow rotator with ~6 d rotation period, seen at ~60° inclination, the secondary rotates fast with ~1.2 d rotation period, and is seen at ~20° inclination. Our spectropolarimetric measurements revealed that the secondary component has a magnetic field with at least a few hundred Gauss strength, while no magnetic field was detected in the primary.
The detailed analysis and results of this study will be published elsewhere.
The musician programme at the University of Canterbury has been successfully identifying pulsation modes in many γ Doradus stars using hundreds of ground-based spectroscopic observations. This paper describes some of the successful mode identifications and emerging patterns of the programme. The hybrid γ Doradus/δ Scuti star HD 49434 remains an enigma, despite the analysis of more than 1700 multi-site high-resolution spectra. A new result for this star is apparently distinct line-profile variations for the γ Doradus and δ Scuti frequencies.
Variable absorption features were observed in the visible and ultraviolet spectrum of β Pictoris soon after this star gained attention in the early 1980s due to its large IRAS infrared excess and the discovery, from optical imaging, of an edge-on dust disk. The absorption has been attributed to the evaporation of infalling planetesimals or comet-like bodies (the falling evaporating bodies, or FEB, hypothesis). With a view to confronting this hypothesis with fuller observations, we monitored the Ca II H and K lines in β Pictoris simultaneously during 1998, obtaining sequences of spectra on 50 nights. Variable absorption was usually present. The different oscillator strengths of the H and K lines permit the determination of covering factors, but detailed modelling is required to test whether all features can be explained by the FEB hypothesis. The blend of Ca II H with Balmer H ε means that the H and K photospheric profiles are different, and that the variable absorption features do not evolve in parallel. The behaviour of the variable absorption on November 27 is evocative of a body passing in front of the stellar disk in a prograde equatorial orbit.
In September 2006, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was added to the UK immunization programme. We aimed to evaluate the impact of PCV7 on the incidence of all-cause community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. A prospective survey was undertaken in 2008–2009 at 11 hospitals in North East England of children aged 0–16 years with radiologically confirmed pneumonia. Data were compared to those from a similar survey undertaken in the same hospitals in 2001–2002. A total of 542 children were enrolled, of which 74% were aged <5 years. PCV7 uptake was 90·7%. The incidence of pneumonia was 11·8/10 000 [95% confidence interval (CI) 10·9–12·9], and the hospitalization rate was 9·9/10 000 (95% CI 9·0–10·9). Compared to 2001, there was a 19% (95% CI 8–29) reduction in the rate of CAP in those aged <5 years, and in those <2 years a 33·1% (95% CI 20–45) reduction in the incidence of CAP and 38·1% (95% CI 24–50) reduction in hospitalization rates. However, for those unvaccinated aged ⩾5 years, there was no difference in the incidence of CAP and hospitalization rate between both surveys. Since 2001, the overall reduction in incidence was 17·7% (95% CI 8–26) and for hospitalization 18·5% (95% CI 8–28). For the <5 years age group there was a lower incidence of CAP in PCV7-vaccinated children (25·2/10 000, 95% CI 22·6–28·2) than in those that were not vaccinated (37·4/10 000, 95% CI 29·2–47·1). In conclusion, PCV7 has reduced both incidence and rate of hospitalization of pneumonia in children, particularly in the <2 years age group.
Objectives: During a public health emergency, public health officials issue directives with actions people need to take to protect themselves. Past research has shown that adherence to these directives depends on individual beliefs and circumstances. This report presents new research about the effects of community factors on adherence.
Methods: A random digit-dial survey of 936 residents in the St Louis, Missouri, area was conducted in 2008 to assess barriers to and facilitators of adherence to directives issued in response to a hypothetical scenario involving the intentional release of the bacterium that causes plague. Community factors were assessed using characteristics of census tracts for individual respondents. Multilevel modeling was used to understand how individual and community factors contributed to the likelihood of adherence.
Results: The majority of participants indicated that they would adhere to 3 distinct directives. Community poverty and ethnic homogeneity as well as individual-level barriers were negatively associated with adherence to a 6-day quarantine. Having children younger than 18 years and being away from home when the directive was called were negatively associated with adherence to a 10-hour quarantine. Logistical concerns were negatively associated with visiting a point of dispensing for prophylactic antibiotics.
Conclusions: Our findings establish an empirical basis for the influence of community factors on adherence to public health directives. The influence of community and individual factors on adherence varies across directives. Consequently, communication strategies to disseminate directives and organizational strategies to support them must vary according to the nature of the directives.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2012;6:253–262)
Members of the public are exposed to radiation because of where they live and their habits bring them into contact with sources of radiation. They may be exposed directly by the source, by direct irradiation or inhalation of released activity or indirectly by exposure to contaminated environmental materials such as food. Consequently habit data are an essential part of dose assessment for members of the public . Previously no detailed surveys had been undertaken in Ireland of habit data relevant to the assessment of doses to the population from radioactivity in the marine environment. Instead RPII dose assessments were made on the basis of assumed or notional data inferred from habit surveys undertaken elsewhere and from national average consumption figures. Following a tender process the Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science, Cefas, UK, were commissioned to undertake a Habits Survey. Its report  provides an assessment of aquatic radiation exposure pathways in Ireland relating to anthropogenic radioactivity in the Irish Sea.
To compare induction, pre- and post-discharge recovery characteristics and patient preferences between four anaesthetic regimens in adult day-surgery.
Randomized controlled trial. In all, 1158 adults assigned to: propofol induction and maintenance, propofol induction with isoflurane/N2O, or sevoflurane/N2O maintenance, or sevoflurane/N2O alone. We prospectively recorded induction and pre-discharge recovery characteristics, collected 7-day post-discharge recovery characteristics using patient diaries and patient preferences by telephone follow-up.
Recruitment rate was 73% – of the 425 refusals, 226 were not willing to risk a volatile induction. During induction, excitatory movements and breath holding were more common with sevoflurane only (P < 0.01). Injection pain and hiccup were more common with propofol induction (P < 0.01). In the recovery room and the postoperative ward, both nausea and vomiting were more common with sevoflurane only (P < 0.01). This difference disappeared within 48 h. There was no difference between groups in the mental state on awakening, recovery time, time to discharge or overnight admissions; then was also no difference in pain between the four groups for each of the seven postoperative days (P < 0.01), nor any differences in concentration or forgetfulness. Patients took 6.5 days (95% CI: 6.0–7.0, n = 693) to resume normal activities. Patients who received sevoflurane only were more likely to recall an unpleasant induction and least likely to want the same induction method again (P < 0.01).
Differences in outcome between the four regimens are transient; sevoflurane is not an ideal sole agent for adult day case anaesthesia and, in this setting, patients base their preferences for future anaesthetics on the method of induction.