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A young previously healthy male student suddenly experienced a fear of incapability of breathing while waiting for release from an isolation chamber at the end of a circadian rhythm experiment. He has since manifested recurrent episodes of panic disorder and has also shown slight depressive symptoms as an associated feature during the course of illness. Although it is not clear whether the disorder was induced by the 3 weeks of isolation, by the condition of living on his innate circadian rhythm or some other factor, this case appears to offer an explanation of the mechanism of panic disorder.
Public health checkups are conducted on 3-year-old children in Japan. However, it is often difficult to detect or provide ongoing support to children with developmental disorders without MR. Therefore we have conducted health checkups on 5 year olds.
The objectives are to describe the results and follow-up of health checkups in 5-year-old children and examine the utility of such checkups.
The aims are to make clear the utility of health checkups in 5-year-old children for screening for developmental disorders.
The subjects were 303 children of 5-year-old that lived in Kanie-cho and participated in health checkups. in the checkups, a child psychiatrist examined the children, and made a provisional diagnosis of a developmental disorder.
Eighty-two children were provisionally diagnosed as having developmental disorders. the follow-up allowed final diagnosis of developmental disorders (suspect diagnosis included) to be made in 39 children (12.9%), and pinpointed 19 children with ADHD, 9 children with PDD, 9 children with mild MR, and 2 children with motor skills disorder.
All children with PDD had already been informed about the possible occurrence of developmental disorders at 3 years of age. However, most of ADHD, mild MR, and motor function disorder were diagnosed in these children during the checkups at the age of 5 years.
The health checkup in 5-year-old children is useful not only as a tool to detect developmental disorders that are difficult to diagnose at the age of 3 years but also as an approach in patients lost to follow-up.
Children with Learning Disorders (LD) are susceptible to decreased self-esteem and willingness because of their difficulty learning, which can lead to exacerbation of the learning difficulty in a vicious cycle. Appropriate learning supports may help not only in terms of learning, but also psychologically.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological effect of learning supports for children with LD.
The aims are to make clear that psychological changes occur for children by the learning supports.
We conducted 10 learning support sessions for 12 children (age 8–11 years) diagnosed as LD. Afterward, we gave a questionnaire on motivation and self-efficacy in learning to the children and their parents, and a questionnaire on positive participation in class to the children's teachers.
The children's responses showed increased intrinsic motivation with high autonomy, and decreased extrinsic motivation with low autonomy and self-efficacy after supports. the parents’ responses indicated increased self-efficacy and decreased motivation overall after supports, while the teachers’ responses indicated increased positive class participation after supports.
Parents and teachers see that willingness for learning improve through learning supports, but the children themselves feel decreased efficacy. At the same time, the children came to have more autonomous intrinsic motivation for learning. Both of motivation and willigness increased through learning supports, but conversely the children came to notice their own weaknesses (true abilities), which is thought to have led to decreased self-efficacy. with continuing support improvement of true efficacy may be expected.
Recent studies have shown that it is important to understand the brain mechanism specifically by focusing on the common and unique functional connectivity in each disorder including depression.
To specify the biomarker of major depressive disorder (MDD), we applied the sparse machine learning algorithm to classify several types of affective disorders using the resting state fMRI data collected in multiple sites, and this study shows the results of depression as a part of those results.
The aim of this study is to understand some specific pattern of functional connectivity in MDD, which would support diagnosis of depression and development of focused and personalized treatments in the future.
The neuroimaging data from patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 100) and healthy control adults (HC: n = 100) from multiple sites were used for the training dataset. A completely separate dataset (n = 16) was kept aside for testing. After all preprocessing of fMRI data, based on one hundred and forty anatomical region of interests (ROIs), 9730 functional connectivities during resting states were prepared as the input of the sparse machine-learning algorithm.
As results, 20 functional connectivities were selected with the classification performance of Accuracy: 83.0% (Sensitivity: 81.0%, Specificity: 85.0%). The test data, which was completely separate from the training data, showed the performance accuracy of 83.3%.
The selected functional connectivities based on the sparse machine learning algorithm included the brain regions which have been associated with depression.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The Keio Twin Research Center (KoTReC) was established in 2009 at Keio University to combine two longitudinal cohort projects — the Keio Twin Study (KTS) for adolescence and adulthood and the Tokyo Twin Cohort Project (ToTCoP) for infancy and childhood. KoTReC also conducted a two-time panel study of self-control and psychopathology in twin adolescence in 2012 and 2013 and three independent anonymous cross-sectional twin surveys (ToTcross) before 2012 — the ToTCross, the Junior and Senior High School Survey and the High School Survey. This article introduces the recent research designs of KoTReC and its publications.
The wings of butterflies are relatively heavier than those of other insects, and the inertial force and torque due to the wing mass are likely to have a significant effect on agility and manoeuvrability in the flapping flight of butterflies. In the present study, the effect of wing mass on the free flight of butterflies is investigated by numerical simulations based on an immersed boundary–lattice Boltzmann method. We use a butterfly-like model consisting of two square wings with mass connected by a rod-shaped body. We simulate the free flights of the model by changing the ratio of the wing mass to the total mass of the model and also changing the mass distributions of the wings. As a result, we find that the aerodynamic vertical and horizontal forces decrease as the wing-mass ratio increases, since for a large wing-mass ratio the body has large vertical and horizontal oscillations in each stroke and consequently the speeds of the wing tip and the leading edge relatively decrease. In addition, we find that the wing-mass ratio has a dominant effect on the rotational motion of the model, and a large wing-mass ratio reduces aerodynamic force and intensifies the time variation of the pitching angle. From the results of our free flight simulations, we clarify the critical wing-mass ratio between upward flight and downward flight and find that the critical wing-mass ratio is a function of the non-dimensional total mass and almost independent of the wing length. Then, we evaluate the effect of the wing-mass distribution on the critical wing-mass ratio. Finally, we discuss the limitations of the model.
Methods for the control of molecular deposition and orientation are critical for the development of organic electronic devices. Here, we show the fabrication of ribbons of the optical material polydiacetylene (PDA) using a controlled evaporative self-assembly method. The ability to form these ribbons is highly dependent on both the side groups on the PDA as well as the solvent used in the preparation. Arrays of ribbons of one type of PDA, poly[1,6-di(N-carbazolyl)-2,4-hexadiyne], with widths on the order of 1–2 µm and lengths of 100s of micrometers, could be successfully obtained with good orientation.
The layered double hydroxide (LDH) Al2Li(OH)6[NiCl4]1/2 was synthesized by anion exchange of Al2Li(OH)6(NO3) and the coordination structure of [NiCl4]2− in the interlayers was investigated. The LDH had a hexagonal cell with a = 5.06 and c = 23.06 Å. Since the basal spacing of one layer was 7.7 Å, the interlayer distance was calculated to be 2.9 Å and was too narrow for the usual tetrahedral NiCl4 structure. From extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements, the first neighbour Ni-Cl distances in the LDH were 2.10 Å which was compatible with four-fold coordination. Since the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrum of the LDH showed no absorption, the [NiCl4]2− structure was considered to be square planar, rather than the usual tetrahedral structure in the interlayers of LDH.
It has been demonstrated that negatively distorted self-referential processing, in which individuals evaluate one's own self, is a pathogenic mechanism in subthreshold depression that has a considerable impact on the quality of life and carries an elevated risk of developing major depression. Behavioural activation (BA) is an effective intervention for depression, including subthreshold depression. However, brain mechanisms underlying BA are not fully understood. We sought to examine the effect of BA on neural activation during other perspective self-referential processing in subthreshold depression.
A total of 56 subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans during a self-referential task with two viewpoints (self/other) and two emotional valences (positive/negative) on two occasions. Between scans, while the intervention group (n = 27) received BA therapy, the control group (n = 29) did not.
The intervention group showed improvement in depressive symptoms, increased activation in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), and increased reaction times during other perspective self-referential processing for positive words after the intervention. Also, there was a positive correlation between increased activation in the dmPFC and improvement of depressive symptoms. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between improvement of depressive symptoms and increased reaction times.
BA increased dmPFC activation during other perspective self-referential processing with improvement of depressive symptoms and increased reaction times which were associated with improvement of self-monitoring function. Our results suggest that BA improved depressive symptoms and objective monitoring function for subthreshold depression.
Low birth weight was associated with cardiometabolic diseases in adult age. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has a crucial role in fetal growth and also associates with cardiometabolic risks in adults. Therefore, we elucidated the association between IGF-1 level and serum lipids in cord blood of preterm infants. The subjects were 41 consecutive, healthy preterm neonates (27 male, 14 female) born at <37-week gestational age, including 10 small for gestational age (SGA) infants (<10th percentile). IGF-1 levels and serum lipids were measured in cord blood, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) and very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDLTG) levels were determined by HPLC method. SGA infants had lower IGF-1 (13.1 ± 5.3 ng/ml), total cholesterol (TC) (55.0 ± 14.8), LDLC (21.6 ± 8.3) and HDLC (26.3 ± 11.3) levels, and higher VLDLTG levels (19.0 ± 12.7 mg/dl) than in appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants (53.6 ± 25.6, 83.4 ± 18.9, 36.6 ± 11.1, 38.5 ± 11.6, 8.1 ± 7.0, respectively). In simple regression analyses, log IGF-1 correlated positively with birth weight (r = 0.721, P < 0.001), TC (r = 0.636, P < 0.001), LDLC (r = 0.453, P = 0.006), and HDLC levels (r = 0.648, P < 0.001), and negatively with log TG (r = −0.484, P = 0.002) and log VLDL-TG (r = −0.393, P = 0.018). Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that IGF-1 was an independent predictor of TC, HDLC and TG levels after the gestational age and birth weight were taken into account. In preterm SGA infants, cord blood lipids profile altered with the concomitant decrease in IGF-1 level.
To increase X-ray photon number generated by laser-cluster interaction, it is important to understand the dependence of X-ray generation on cluster size. We carried out Xe K-shell X-ray generation using a conical nozzle with Xe clusters, the radius of which was controllable by adjusting the backing pressure. The experiment clarifies the result that the Xe K-shell X-ray photon number increases with increasing cluster radius from 8 to 12 nm, and saturates at the radius between 12 and 17 nm. We also investigated the Xe K-shell X-ray photon number dependence on laser intensity, and found that the threshold laser intensity of the Xe K-shell X-ray generation exists between 2 × 1017 and 5 × 1018 W/cm2.
The Keio Twin Research Center has conducted two longitudinal twin cohort projects and has collected three independent and anonymous twin data sets for studies of phenotypes related to psychological, socio-economic, and mental health factors. The Keio Twin Study has examined adolescent and adult cohorts, with a total of over 2,400 pairs of twins and their parents. DNA samples are available for approximately 600 of these twin pairs. The Tokyo Twin Cohort Project has followed a total of 1,600 twin pairs from infancy to early childhood. The large-scale cross-sectional twin study (CROSS) has collected data from over 4,000 twin pairs, from 3 to 26 years of age, and from two high school twin cohorts containing a total of 1,000 pairs of twins. These data sets of anonymous twin studies have mainly targeted academic performance, attitude, and social environment. The present article introduces the research designs and major findings of our center, such as genetic structures of cognitive abilities, personality traits, and academic performances, developmental effects of genes and environment on attitude, socio-cognitive ability and parenting, genes x environment interaction on attitude and conduct problem, and statistical methodological challenges and so on. We discuss the challenges in conducting twin research in Japan.
As the binary collision process requires much more computation time, a statistical electron-electron collision model based on modified Langevin equation is developed to reduce it. This collision model and a simple electron-ion scattering model are installed into one-dimensional PIC code, and collisional effects on fast electron generation and transport in fast ignition are investigated. In the collisional case, initially thermal electrons are heated up to a few hundred keV due to direct energy transfer by electron-electron collision, and they are also heated up to MeV by Joule heating induced by electron-ion scattering. Thus the number of low energy component of fast electrons increase than that in the collisionless case.
Lasing characteristics of a single Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanosheet and a single ZnO nanowire were investigated by an ultraviolet light excitation. ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, and those ZnO nanocrystals were excited by a third-harmonic Q-switched Nd:YAG laser beam (355 nm, 5 ns). The emission spectra from a single ZnO nanocrystal was collected by an objective lens with a magnification factor of 100 or 50, coupled with a spectrometer with a light fiber. The area observed by the spectrometer is about 10 μm in diameter, and therefore the emission spectra from a single ZnO nanocrystal can be observed. The emission spectra showed the obvious lasing characteristics having mode structure and a threshold for lasing. The lasing threshold power density of a ZnO nanosheet and a ZnO nanowire were measured to be about 60 kW/cm2 and 150 kW/cm2, respectively. ZnO nanosheet can be a superior laser medium due to the lower threshold for lasing compared to the threshold of the ZnO nanowire. However, since the lasing spectra had mode structure, a single-longitudinal mode lasing would be required for a practical application. The single longitudinal mode lasing can be realized by a nanomachining of a grating on the ZnO nanocrystal surface due to distributed bragg reflector (DBR) laser. The minimum DBR pitch was estimated to be about 81 nm, which can be machined by focused-ion beam (FIB) focused up to 7 nm at minimum, and therefore, we demonstrated the nanomachining on a single ZnO nanowire. However, the single-longitudinal mode lasing was not observed so far, and thus optimization of experimental conditions such as the DBR pitch, ion dose amount and increasing the number of repetition of DBR would be required.
Within the Herschel key project “The Warm And Dense ISM” (WADI) we systematically observe
a number of prominent photon-dominated regions (PDRs) to measure the impact of varying UV
fields on the energy balance, the chemical and dynamical structure of heated molecular
Mg1-zCaz (0.03 < z < 0.17) alloy thin films covered with thin Pd are hydrogenated using 4% H2 in Ar under atmospheric pressure at room temperature. The optical indices, which are refractive indices and extinction coefficients, in the wavelength between 250 and 1700 nm of these hydrides were evaluated with spectroscopic ellipsometry. The evaluated refractive indices were about 2.0 for all hydrides, while the extinction coefficients showed the values less than 0.06 in the visible range for hydride with Ca composition of z ≤ 0.08 and the coefficients increased sharply to more than 0.3 with Ca composition z > 0.08.
Gate-voltage dependent Hall coefficient RH is measured in high-mobility field-effect transistors of solution-crystallized and vapor-deposited 2,7-dioctylbenzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene. The value of RH evolves with density of accumulated charge Q, precisely satisfying the free-electron formula RH = 1/Q near room temperature. The result indicates that the intrinsic charge transport inside the grains is band-like in the high-mobility organic-semiconductor thin films that are of significant interest in industry. At lower temperature, even Hall-effect mobility averaged over the whole polycrystalline film decreases due to the presence of carrier-trapping levels at the grain boundaries, while the free-electron-like transport is preserved in the grains. With the separated description of the inter- and intra-grain charge transport, it is demonstrated that the reduction of mobility with decreasing temperature often shown in organic thin-film transistors does not necessarily mean mere hopping transport.
The facts of Polychæte embryology inform us that the change of the trochonphore into the perfect worm consists, first of all, in a growing out of the posterior section of its body and a gradual reduction of the anterior part, segmentation appearing at the same time. Thïs phenomenon depends upon a marked change of the mesodermal bands, situated on each side of the intestine. Each of them is separated into two cell-layers, which spread out toward the mid-ventral and mid-dorsal lines. Then a segmentation makes its appearance in them, proceeding from in front backwards, and almost simultaneously the two layers of the bands separate from each other, by the formation of a cavity in each section or segment. That new segments are gradually formed one after the other, and from before backwards, in the hinder part of the growing body, holds true universally, but, at the extreme end a segment has been individualised from the first, or at a very early phase of the segmentation, and this segment does not divide again even to the end of development. In this way the pygidium is formed, and it represents the posterior individual portion of the trochophore. The growth of Polychæte-larvæ is therefore anteanal and entirely in the penultimate segment.