To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Increased frequency and occurrence of herbicide-resistant biotypes heightens the need for alternative wild oat management strategies. This study aimed to exploit the height differential between wild oat and crops by targeting wild oat between panicle emergence and seed shed timing. Two field studies were conducted either in Lacombe, AB, or Lacombe, AB and Saskatoon, SK, from 2015 to 2017. In the first study, we compared panicle removal methods: hand clipping, use of a hedge trimmer, and a selective herbicide crop topping application to a weedy check and an industry standard in-crop herbicide application in wheat. These treatments were tested early (at panicle emergence), late (at initiation of seed shed), or in combination at one location over 3 yr. In the second study, we investigated optimal timing of panicle removal via a hedge trimmer with weekly removals in comparison to a weedy check in wheat and lentil. This study was conducted at two locations, Lacombe, AB, and Saskatoon, SK, over 3 yr. Among all the tested methods, the early crop topping treatment consistently had the largest impact on wild oat density, dockage, seedbank, and subsequent year crop yield. The early (at panicle emergence) or combination of early and late (at initiation of seed shed) treatments tended to reduce wild oat populations the following season the most compared to the late treatments. Subsequent wild oat populations were not influenced by panicle removal timing, but only by crop and location interactions. Panicle removal timing did significantly affect wild oat dockage in the year of treatment, but no consistent optimal timing could be identified. However, the two studies together highlight additional questions to be investigated, as well as the opportunity to manage wild oat seedbank inputs at the panicle emergence stage of the wild oat lifecycle.
Wild oat (Avena fatua L.) is one of the most problematic weed species in western Canada due to widespread populations, herbicide resistance, and seed dormancy. In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and especially in shorter crops such as lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.), A. fatua seed panicles elongate above the crop canopy, which can facilitate physical cutting of the panicles (clipping) to reduce viable seed return to the seedbank. However, the viability of A. fatua seed at the time of panicle elongation is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the viability of A. fatua seed at successive time intervals after elongation above a wheat or lentil crop canopy. A 2-yr panicle clipping and removal study in wheat and lentil was conducted in Lacombe, AB, and Saskatoon, SK, in 2015 and 2016 to determine the onset of viability in A. fatua seeds at successive clipping intervals. Manual panicle clipping of A. fatua panicles above each crop canopy began when the majority of panicles were visible above respective crop canopies and continued weekly until seed shed began. At the initiation of panicle clipping, A. fatua seed viability was between 0% and 10%. By the last clipping treatment (approximately 6 to 7 wk after elongation), 95% of the A. fatua seeds were viable. Seed moisture and awn angle were not good predictors of A. fatua viability, and therefore were unlikely to provide effective tools to estimate appropriate timing for implementation of A. fatua clipping as a management technique. Based on A. fatua seed viability, earlier clipping of A. fatua is likely to be more effective in terms of population management and easier to implement in shorter crops such as lentil. Investigations into long-term effects of clipping on A. fatua populations are needed to evaluate the efficacy of this management strategy on A. fatua.
This report updates the incidence of herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds across western Canada from the last report covering 2007 to 2011. This third round of preharvest surveys was conducted in Saskatchewan in 2014 and 2015, Manitoba in 2016, and Alberta in 2017, totaling 798 randomly selected cropped fields across 28 million ha. In addition, we screened 1,108 weed seed samples submitted by prairie growers or industry between 2012 and 2016. Of 578 fields where wild oat seed was collected, 398 (69%) had an HR biotype: 62% acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitor (WSSA Group 1) resistant, 34% acetolactate synthase inhibitor (Group 2) resistant, and 27% Group 1+2 resistant (vs. 41%, 12%, and 8%, respectively, in the previous second-round surveys from 2007 to 2009). The sharp increase in Group 2 resistance is the result of reliance on this site of action to manage Group 1 resistance and the resultant increased selection pressure. There are no POST options to control Group 1+2–HR wild oat in wheat or barley. The rise of Group 2 resistance in green foxtail (11% of sampled fields) and yellow foxtail (17% of Manitoba fields), which was not detected in the previous survey round, parallels the results for wild oat resistance. Various Group 2–HR populations of broadleaf weeds were confirmed, with cleavers and field pennycress being most abundant. Results of submission-sample testing reflected survey results. Although not included in this study, a postharvest survey in Alberta in 2017 indicated widespread Groups 2, 4 (dicamba), and 9 (glyphosate) resistance in kochia and Group 2 resistance in Russian thistle. These surveys bring greater awareness of HR weeds to growers and land managers at local and regional levels, and highlight the urgency to preserve herbicide susceptibility in our key economic weed species.
Herbicide resistance has increased the need for novel weed control strategies. Fluridone has herbicidal as well as potential germination stimulant activity. The objectives of this study were to evaluate fluridone as a fall-applied germination stimulant for weed control and to assess rotational crop tolerance. Fall-applied fluridone was compared with a nontreated control in areas established with false cleavers, volunteer canola, and wild oat at Lacombe, AB, in 2014–2015 and 2015–2016, and at St Albert, AB, in 2015–2016. In the fall, there was a trend for weed densities to be higher in fluridone treatments than in untreated controls across site-years. The stimulatory effect of fluridone on weed germination was not statistically significant in fall assessments, while the weed control effect was significant in 33% of spring assessments. While fluridone reduced weed biomass for some site-years, it also reduced canola crop emergence and biomass at St Albert in 2015–2016, and caused injury symptoms on wheat and field pea. Risk of carryover to subsequent crops outweighed the benefits of using fluridone in the fall to stimulate weed germination in this study.
As chemical management options for weeds become increasingly limited due to selection for herbicide resistance, investigation of additional nonchemical tools becomes necessary. Harvest weed seed control (HWSC) is a methodology of weed management that targets and destroys weed seeds that are otherwise dispersed by harvesters following threshing. It is not known whether problem weeds in western Canada retain their seeds in sufficient quantities until harvest at a height suitable for collection. A study was conducted at three sites over 2 yr to determine whether retention and height criteria were met by wild oat, false cleavers, and volunteer canola. Wild oat consistently shed seeds early, but seed retention was variable, averaging 56% at the time of wheat swathing, with continued losses until direct harvest of wheat and fababean. The majority of retained seeds were >45 cm above ground level, suitable for collection. Cleavers seed retention was highly variable by site-year, but generally greater than wild oat. The majority of seed was retained >15 cm above ground level and would be considered collectable. Canola seed typically had >95% retention, with the majority of seed retained >15 cm above ground level. The suitability ranking of the species for management with HWSC was canola>cleavers>wild oat. Efficacy of HWSC systems in western Canada will depend on the target species and site- and year-specific environmental conditions.
The Harrington Seed Destructor (HSD), a novel weed control technology, has been highly effective in Australian cropping systems. To investigate its applicability to conditions in western Canada, stationary threshing was conducted to determine the impact of weed species, seed size, seed number, chaff load, and chaff type on efficacy of seed destruction. Control varied depending on species, with a range of 97.7% to 99.8%. Sieve-sized volunteer canola seed had a linear relationship of increasing control with increasing 1,000-seed weight. However, with greater than 98% control across all tested seed weights, it is unlikely that seed size alone will significantly influence control. Consistently high levels of control were observed at all tested seed densities (10 seeds to 1 million seeds). The response of weed seed control to chaff load was quadratic, but a narrow range of consistently high control (>97%) was again observed. Chaff type had a significant effect on weed seed control (98% to 98.6%); however, seed control values in canola chaff were likely confounded by a background presence of volunteer canola. Overall, the five parameters studied statistically influence control of weed seeds with the HSD. However, small differences between treatments are unlikely to affect the biological impact of the machine, which provides high levels of control for those weed seeds that can be introduced into the harvester.
The effectiveness of preharvest applications of glyphosate on yellow toadflax was evaluated at five sites in Alberta from 1992 to 1994. At each site, glyphosate at 0.9 to 1.8 kg ae/ha was applied with or without nonionic surfactant and/or ammonium sulfate. Glyphosate at 2.7 kg/ha and glufosinate at 0.6 kg ai/ha were applied without additional adjuvants. The treatments were applied 7 to 10 d before crop harvest, when the majority of the yellow toadflax was in a flowering stage. Eleven to 12 mo after glyphosate application, yellow toadflax density was reduced by more than 80%. In most instances, there was no advantage in increasing the glyphosate rate above 0.9 kg/ha. The addition of nonionic surfactant and/or ammonium sulfate did not enhance glyphosate activity. Glufosinate did not control yellow toadflax in the year following treatment. Barley, canola, and flax yields in the year following applications were significantly higher in all preharvest glyphosate-treated plots than in untreated plots.
Field experiments were conducted to determine the effect of CGA184927 rate, weed growth stage, and tank mixes with various broadleaf herbicides on the control of green foxtail and wild oat in spring wheat. CGA 184927 controlled green foxtail and wild oat equally well when applied at the 2- to 3- or 4- to 5-leaf stages. Green foxtail and wild oat were controlled at similar rates of CGA 184927 but the application rate giving > 90% control ranged from 22 to 90 g/ha over locations and years, indicating that CGA 184927 efficacy is sensitive to environmental conditions. CGA 184927 in tank mixtures was compatible with bromoxynil, clopyralid, and 2,4-D ester. However, tank mixing with metsulfuron or dicamba reduced activity on green foxtail and wild oat. Broadleaf herbicide activity on kochia and redroot pigweed was not reduced when such herbicides were tank-mixed with CGA 184927. Spring wheat tolerated 120 g/ha of CGA 184927. CGA 184927 provides growers with another herbicide option to control green foxtail and wild oat in wheat.
Experiments were conducted in the greenhouse and the field to determine if a seaweed extract and its component alginates could enhance the activity of sethoxydim on barley (five- to six-leaf stage). In greenhouse trials, sethoxydim with 0.5% oil concentrate was applied at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 kg ai/ha; in field trials, sethoxydim with 0.5% oil concentrate was applied at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 kg/ha. In both sets of trials the seaweed extract was applied at a rate of 1 and 2 L/ha, and the alginates were applied at 250 and 500 g/ha. When either the seaweed extract, or the calcium ammonium salt of alginic acid was used as an adjuvant a significant increase in sethoxydim activity was usually observed. At the highest rates of these adjuvants, sethoxydim (0.2 kg/ha) activity increased from 59% control (1321 g/m2 fresh weight) with only oil concentrate, to 87% control (224 g/m2 fresh weight) with seaweed extract, or 89% control (184 g/m2 fresh weight) with the calcium ammonium salt of alginic acid. Sodium salts of alginic acid, both low and medium viscosity, were much less effective.
Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted at the Lacombe Research Station to evaluate mixtures of sethoxydim and fluazifop on green foxtail, wild oat, wheat, and barley in canola. In both environments the two herbicides interacted on the grass species in a synergistic manner. Many of the observed responses to mixtures of sethoxydim and fluazifop were 100% greater than those expected assuming an additive interaction between the herbicides. Mixtures with at least 80 g ha-1 of sethoxydim and 80 g ha-1 of fluazifop controlled more than 90% of green foxtail, wild oat, wheat, and barley under field conditions. These experiments indicate that the sethoxydim/fluazifop mixture is both complementary and synergistic. The mixture may allow reduced herbicide application rates and therefore reduced herbicide costs and less potential for negative environmental impact.
Germinated seeds of wild oat populations that were susceptible (S) or resistant (R) to triallate at the recommended soil-applied rate (1.7 kg/ha) were treated with six triallate concentrations on filter paper in petri dishes. Measurement of shoot length 8 d after treatment provided an accurate indication of differences among populations, and was more reliable than determining shoot fresh weight. ED50 values (herbicide concentrations that reduced shoot length by 50% relative to untreated controls), derived from nonlinear regression analysis, indicated four and five levels of response to triallate among eight S and seven R populations, respectively. The ED50 values varied from 0.11 to 11 ppm a.i. triallate for the most susceptible to the most resistant populations, respectively. Routine testing of wild oat samples suspected of resistance, at triallate concentrations of 0.5 or 1 ppm in the petri dish bioassay, effectively identified populations that had become resistant to the recommended soil-applied rate.
Field studies were conducted to study the interaction of sethoxydim or fluazifop-P with clopyralid and/or ethametsulfuron applied as tank mixtures to canola. Control of the indicator species barley, broadbean, and wild mustard with the tank mixtures was comparable to, or sometimes better than, that attained with each herbicide alone. Canola tolerated all herbicides applied individually and all tank mixtures of these herbicides except fluazifop-P and ethametsulfuron. Tank mixtures of fluazifop-P and ethametsulfuron, with or without clopyralid included in the mixture, suppressed early growth of canola in two of four tests and reduced seed yield in one. Sethoxydim, clopyralid, and ethametsulfuron combined in tank mixtures provide an effective POST alternative for selective control of grass and broadleaf weeds in canola.
Field experiments were conducted at the Lacombe Research Station from 1989 to 1991 to determine the influence of various adjuvants on sethoxydim activity. In all experiments sethoxydim was applied at 100 g ai ha-1 to green foxtail, wheat, wild oat, and barley seeded in a canola crop. Of the four grass species, green foxtail was the most susceptible and barley was the least susceptible to sethoxydim. CC 16255 was the most effective adjuvant followed by either of two sources of ammonium sulphate (liquid or granular) and then Merge. Liquid and granular forms of ammonium sulphate were equally effective in enhancing sethoxydim activity. Several other adjuvants, including Enhance, Savol, and XE 1167, were moderately effective in the enhancement of sethoxydim activity. Adding Canplus 411 to Merge was not usually beneficial, but additions of Canplus 411 to Enhance often increased sethoxydim activity compared with sethoxydim and Enhance alone. Agral 90 and LI-700 were of little or no value as adjuvants with sethoxydim.
Laboratory, greenhouse, and field experiments were conducted at the Lacombe Research Station to determine if CCC, ethephon, or CCC/ethephon had direct activity on quackgrass rhizome buds, and to determine if foliar applications of CCC/ethephon could predispose quackgrass to more effective control with sethoxydim. CCC, ethephon, and CCC/ethephon had growth regulating effects on the axillary buds and the apex of detached quackgrass rhizomes. CCC increased rhizome bud sprouting on rhizomes with the apex excised, but not on rhizomes with an intact apex. Ethephon or CCC/ethephon inhibited bud sprouting on rhizomes with an intact or excised apex. CCC/ethephon, but not CCC or ethephon alone, increased rhizome elongation on rhizomes with intact apices. In the greenhouse, pretreatments of CCC/ethephon increased sethoxydim activity on quackgrass rhizome buds and caused lower shoot emergence from one-bud rhizome segments. Results of field experiments were less consistent than those in the greenhouse. However, sometimes CCC or CCC/ethephon pretreatments resulted in increased quackgrass control in the field with sethoxydim.
Field experiments were conducted at the Lacombe Research Station from 1989 to 1991 to determine if short-term, split applications of grass-specific herbicides would improve quackgrass control relative to single applications. Quackgrass infested plots were planted to canola the first year and barley the following year. Glyphosate applied at 880 g/ha controlled quackgrass to a greater extent and for a longer time period than any of the grass-specific herbicides. In contrast to glyphosate, none of the grass-specific herbicides controlled quackgrass 1 yr after treatment. Quackgrass control with sethoxydim or fluazifop-P was usually similar when applied as single or short-term, split applications. In contrast, quizalofop often provided better quackgrass control and higher crop yields when short-term, split applications were compared to a single application with the same total amount of quizalofop. However, the extent of increased quackgrass control is difficult to justify due to increased application costs and inconvenience.
Different growth rates of young seedlings (genets) and plants grown from root pieces (ramets) of yellow toadflax could influence their respective competitive ability and their susceptibility to management techniques. Shoot production was similar for genets and ramets (approximately 10 shoots were produced 12 or 13 wk after transplanting or cotyledon appearance, respectively), but the rate of shoot biomass accumulation was higher for genets than for ramets. Genets consistently produced more underground shoots than ramets. Replanted underground shoots separated from their roots were able to produce new shoots and roots. Rate of elongation for roots 0.5 to 1.5 mm in diameter was higher for ramets than for genets, but their shoot production potential was the same. Root pieces from genets did not have the ability to produce daughter shoots until 3 wk after cotyledon appearance. This indicates that very young genets would be more susceptible than older genets or ramets to management control systems.
Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted from 1987 to 1990 at the Lacombe Research Station to determine the influence of ammonium sulfate (AS) on various grass control herbicides. In field studies, AS had slight or no effects on the phytotoxicity of aryloxyphenoxypropanoate (APP) herbicides (fenoxaprop, fluazifop, haloxyfop, and quizalofop). The largest AS-mediated increase in APP herbicide phytotoxicity was 19% (based on fresh weight reduction) for wild oat with haloxyfop at 50 g/ha. AS consistently mediated increases in cyclohexanedione (CHD) herbicide phytotoxicity. With added AS, barley fresh weight was reduced 75% (1988) with BAS 517 at 50 g/ha, and 100% (1990) with clethodim at 25 g/ha. Greenhouse studies confirmed field studies, but differences were less substantial and consistent. It is suggested that APP herbicides are either less susceptible to UV degradation than CHD herbicides, and/or that APP herbicides may penetrate plant cuticles quickly enough to nullify any protection from UV degradation that AS might provide via rapid absorption.
Field experiments were conducted from 1986 to 1988 at Lacombe and Lethbridge, Alberta and Scott, Saskatchewan to determine growth and yield response of canola to mixtures of ethametsulfuron with specific grass herbicides. Ethametsulfuron did not usually cause canola injury when mixed with sethoxydim. However, ethametsulfuron mixtures with the following grass herbicides listed in decreasing order of injury potential, often caused canola injury and yield loss: haloxyfop > fluazifop > fluazifop-P > quizalofop > quizalofop-P. Canola yield losses were severe in some experiments, ranging from 59% with quizalofop mixtures to 97% with haloxyfop mixtures; in other experiments, the same mixtures did not cause significant yield losses. ‘Tobin,’ a Brassica rapa cultivar, tended to be more susceptible to injury than the B. napus cultivars ‘Pivot’ and ‘Westar.’ Canola injury symptoms were consistent with those expected from sulfonylurea herbicides. Therefore, we suggest that specific grass herbicides differentially impair the ability of canola to metabolize ethametsulfuron to inactive forms.
Redstem filaree is becoming widespread and abundant on the Canadian prairies. A field study was conducted to determine the growth, development, and seed yield response of redstem filaree when grown under noncropped conditions and planted at various dates throughout the growing season in Alberta. Redstem filaree emerged within 7 to 13 d of planting with an accumulated 57 to 134 growing degree days (GDD). Flowering occurred within 46 to 65 d (327 to 779 GDD) of planting. Plants that emerged in August or later did not flower in that season and survived as winter annuals. Spring-emerging redstem filaree plants matured within 79 to 100 d (729 to 1,193 GDD). Plants that emerged in May and June attained more biomass and produced threefold more seeds than plants that emerged in July or later. Redstem filaree seed production ranged from 2,400 to 9,900 seeds/plant depending on emergence date and environmental conditions. Information from this study will assist in developing integrated management strategies for this increasingly important weed.
A growth room study was conducted to evaluate the effect that timing of application has on the distribution of several herbicides in quackgrass. Uniformly labeled 14C-sucrose and the radiolabeled herbicides glyphosate, sethoxydim, the butyl ester of fluazifop, and the methyl ester of haloxyfop were applied to quackgrass (ranging from the three- to eight-leaf stage) propagated from six-bud rhizome segments. Five days after treatment the plants were harvested, lyophilized, and later sectioned, mapped, and oxidized in preparation for 14C quantification. In most cases, slightly more 14C was translocated to the shoots than to the rhizomes. 14C translocation to the rhizomes was similar at all growth stages. The 14C accumulating in the rhizomes exhibited a nonuniform distribution pattern with more 14C in the distal areas of new rhizomes than in the other areas of the rhizome system. Plants treated with haloxyfop had a more uniform distribution of 14C along their rhizomes than did those treated with fluazifop or sethoxydim.