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Parotid gland carcinoma is a rare and complicated histopathological classification. Therefore, assembling a sufficient number of cases with long-term outcomes in a single institute can present a challenge.
The medical records of 108 parotid gland carcinoma patients who were treated at Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan, between 1983 and 2014 were reviewed. The survival outcomes were analysed according to clinicopathological findings.
Forty-six patients had low clinical stage tumours (I–II), and 62 patients had high clinical stage tumours (III–IV). Fifty-two, 10 and 46 patients had low-, intermediate- and high-grade tumours, respectively. Twenty-seven of 65 cases had positive surgical margins. In high clinical stage and intermediate- to high-grade tumours, adjuvant radiation therapy was correlated with local recurrence-free survival (p = 0.0244). Intermediate- to high-grade tumours and positive surgical margins were significantly associated with disease-specific survival in multivariate analysis (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.0058).
The results of this study show that adjuvant radiation therapy is useful for improved local control in patients with high clinical stage and intermediate- to high-grade tumours.
We review recent chondrule oxygen isotope studies by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). We discuss primary O-isotope fractionation characteristics of chondrule phases, and how they are used to garner information related to the physicochemical environment from which they formed. This includes high temperature gas–melt interactions, sampling of common precursors among different chondrite types, and how precursor compositions influenced redox states during chondrule formation. We also explore how primary O-isotope ratios of chondrule phases are disturbed by secondary alteration.
An outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 occurred in multiple prefectures of Japan in November 2009. We conducted two case–control studies with trace-back and trace-forward investigations to determine the source. The case definition was met by 21 individuals; 14 (66.7%) were hospitalised, but no haemolytic uraemic syndrome, acute encephalopathy or deaths occurred. Median age was 23 (range 12–48) years and 14 cases were male (66.7%). No significant associations with food were found in a case–control study by local public health centres, but our matched case–control study using Internet surveys found that beef hanging tender (or hanger steak), derived from the diaphragm of the cattle, was significantly associated with illness (odds ratio = 15.77; 95% confidence interval, 2.00–124.11). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of isolates from patients and the suspected food showed five different patterns: two in faecal and food samples, and another three in patient faecal samples only, although there were epidemiological links to the meat consumed at the restaurants. Trace-back investigation implicated a common food processing company from outside Japan. Examination of the logistics of the meat processing company suggested that contamination did not occur in Japan. We concluded that the source of the outbreak was imported hanging tender. This investigation revealed that Internet surveys could be useful for outbreak investigations.
We introduce the newly developed database of circumstellar maser sources. Until now, the compilations comprehensively including the three major maser species in evolved stars (i.e., SiO, H2O, OH) has been practically limited only to the Benson’s catalog (Benson et al. 1990), which was published more than a quarter of a century ago. For OH masers alone, there exists the University of Hamburg (UH) database, but there is no updated compilation work for H2O and SiO masers. In order to utilize the information of masers in actual studies, it is highly desirable to have a database containing all the three masers. We are currently constructing a database covering SiO, H2O and OH masers. This database consists of a web-service, which accesses compiled maser observations in available archives and combines them with the data we newly collected and IR databases. The archives currently used are the OH maser archive from Engels & Bunzel (2015), and H2O and SiO archives, which are currently under construction. So far, the information of about 27,000 observations (about 10,000 objects) has been implemented. We also have a plan to extend the database by including higher transitions and other types of objects, such as young stellar objects, in future. In this paper, we briefly summarize, (1) outline of the data collected, and (2) future development plans of the eDAMS system. The URL of the database is as follows: http://maserdb.ins.urfu.ru/
This model, proposed by T. Nagylaki, describes the evolution of two alleles under the joint action of selection, migration, and partial panmixia – a non-local term, for the complete dominance case, where g(x) is assumed to change sign at least once to reflect the diversity of the environment. First, properties for general non-local problems are studied. Then, existence of non-trivial steady states, in terms of the diffusion coefficient d and the partial panmixia rate b, is obtained under different signs of the integral ∫Ωg(x)dx. Furthermore, stability and instability properties for non-trivial steady states, as well as the trivial steady states u ≡ 0 and u ≡ 1 are investigated. Our results illustrate how the non-local term – namely, the partial panmixia – helps the migration in this model.
Liposarcomas rarely occur in the parapharyngeal space and only a few case reports exist. For curative therapy of liposarcoma, surgical excision remains the dominant modality. Although a wide surgical margin is important to prevent local recurrence, wide excision is often difficult in the head and neck region.
We report a case of a 19-year-old female with a well-differentiated liposarcoma arising in the parapharyngeal space. We removed the tumour surgically utilising a cervical–parotid approach. The histological diagnosis was well-differentiated sclerosing liposarcoma. There is no recurrence after five years and nine months of follow up.
The patient's age and the tumour site made it difficult for us to make a quantitative diagnosis before the operation. Well-differentiated liposarcoma rarely develop distant metastasis, but often recur locally. The benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy for well-differentiated liposarcoma is still not clear and careful and long-term follow up is necessary.
To determine the clinical effect of post-operative radiotheraphy and systemic chemotherapy for the treatment of salivary duct carcinoma.
The medical records of 26 patients treated by surgery with or without radiotheraphy and/or systemic chemotherapy for salivary duct carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed to investigate the role of post-operative adjuvant treatment for the patients' prognosis.
The overall three-year and five-year survival rates were 54 and 48.1 per cent, respectively. There was no correlation with the clinical stage and the patients' prognosis. The overall three-year survival of the patients with or without post-operative radiotheraphy was 64 and 33 per cent, respectively (p = 0.29). The overall three-year survival of the patients with or without post-operative chemotherapy was 53 and 56 per cent, respectively (p = 0.78).
Post-operative adjuvant therapy did not improve the patients' overall prognosis with salivary duct carcinoma. Developing novel treatment modalities may be necessary to improve the prognosis of this aggressive disease.
Phase equilibria among the β-Ti, α-Ti and γ-TiAl phases were examined at 1473 K, in order to reveal the M/Nb ratio dependence of the relative phase stability of β phase in the Ti-Al-Nb-M (M: V, Cr, Mo) quaternary systems. In all of the quaternary systems, the expansion of β phase region toward the lower (Nb+M) content side is observed due to the existence of negative interaction to stabilize the β phase between the third and fourth elements (i.e. Nb-V, Nb-Cr and Nb-Mo). Composition dependence of the interaction is quantified as a function of the M/(Nb+M) ratio at 42 at.% Al. The strong interaction energy existing between the different group elements should be taken into account to design the multi-component TiAl alloys.
We present the discovery of out-flow like plasma emissions with the Suzaku and ASCA data. Those plasmas have a size of ∼150 pc. Remarkably, the southern plasma is in a recombination dominant phase, which is not predicted by standard shock heating. A plausible scenario is either photoionization due to strong jet-like X-rays from Sgr A* or rapid cooling due to adiabatic expansion of a blowout plasma from the Galactic center about 105 years ago.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
In May 2011, an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 was reported from Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. Investigations, including a case-control study, revealed that the outbreak was linked to two varieties of rice cakes produced by a local manufacturer between 2 and 7 May. Active and passive surveillance identified 136 suspected cases, 142 confirmed cases, 26 asymptomatic cases, and 25 secondary cases. While no environmental samples taken from the manufacturing premises tested positive for STEC, other than a stool sample taken from one employee, on-site and epidemiological investigations indicated that STEC was introduced during the manufacturing process of rice cakes rather than through contamination of raw materials. This was the first reported outbreak of STEC associated with cakes and confectionery in Japan, which indicates that contamination and outbreaks of STEC can occur in any food unless proper precautions are taken.
We report the deposition and field emission properties of nanostructured composites consisting of carbon nanowalls (CNWs) and nanocrystalline diamond films by introducing two kinds of substrate scratching pretreatment, i.e., undulation and ultrasonic vibration. With increasing duration of scratching pretreatment, the morphology of the deposits changes from simple CNWs to a film/CNW composite and lastly to CNWs on a film, and then the space between the walls is increased. The emission turn-on field is reduced from 2.1 V/μm for simple CNWs to around 1.2 V/μm for the composite films, accompanied by an increase in field enhancement factor. The results indicate that electric field screening between the walls is successfully suppressed by widening of the wall spacing.
A “water fountain” is a transitional object between an AGB star and a PN. The VLBA observations of 22.2 GHz water maser emission reveal a “double-helix” outflow pattern from one of the water fountains, IRAS 18286–0959. The pattern is reasonably fit by a model consisting of two precessing jets. We propose that the two jets observed are a result of a single driving source with a significant proper motion. Using data from the AKARI catalogs, we also found that water fountains might have their own IR colors which are affected by the 9.7 μm silicate feature and the optical thickness of stellar envelopes. The colors could serve as new criteria for searching this type of rare objects.
We obtained a high-resolution CO map of IRAS 22272+5435 in the CO J = 2–1 line using CARMA. The target exhibits a second biggest angular size of the circumstellar molecular envelope among known 21 μm sources. In the preliminary results, we found that the CO properties of IRAS 22272+5435 is clearly different from those of IRAS 07134+1005, which is another well-investigated 21 μm source. For example, elongations seen in the mid-infrared and CO images are extended in mutually perpendicular directions, although in case of IRAS 07134+1005 the CO feature coincides well with the mid-infrared structure.
Molybdenum, being a strong β stabilizer, is an important alloying element in TiAl alloys, since a significant volume fraction of the disordered bcc β-phase at elevated temperatures improves the processing characteristics during hot-working. Unfortunately, the effect of Mo on the individual phases and their transition temperatures is not completely known but is necessary for designing engineering applications. In this paper, sections of the Ti-Al-Mo ternary phase diagram derived from thermodynamic calculations as well as experimental data are presented. Further, the phase transition temperatures given by the phase diagrams are compared with results from isothermal heat treatment studies, differential scanning calorimetry measurements and in-situ high-temperature diffraction experiments. Combining all of these results, a revised phase diagram is proposed.
The Bi-based oxide superconducting wire is one of the most promising materials for practical uses such as electric power transmission, electromagnets and so on. For the higher performances required in these applications, it is necessary to increase the critical current (Ic). We have carried out synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction analysis to improve our manufacturing processes and thus to achieve higher Ic. We have performed in situ X-ray diffraction measurements during the sintering and cooling processes, and observed the decrease of Bi-2223(=(Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox) phase during the cooling process. We have also evaluated the distribution of the crystal orientation in whole wire thickness, by measuring the rocking curves. We have observed that the distribution of the crystal orientation is improved by a refinement of the process conditions.
This study examined the local immune status and tumour marker expression in secretions and related tissue specimens from the laryngeal ventricle, comparing individuals with and without head and neck cancer. Laryngeal secretion and mucosal tissue specimens were collected during laryngeal microsurgery or surgical laryngectomy. The laryngeal secretions were found to contain immunological factors such as immunoglobulins G and A and secretory immunoglobulin A. A high level of the tumour marker Cyfra 21-1 was also detected in laryngeal secretions and mucosal tissue. Lows levels of secretory immunoglobulin A and Cyfra 21-1 were seen in the laryngeal mucosal tissue of controls and patients who had previously undergone radiation therapy. The level of secretory immunoglobulin A in laryngeal secretions closely correlated to the level of this immunoglobulin in mucosal tissue. These results indicate that local immunity is present in the human larynx; furthermore, it is strongly affected both by the presence of malignancy and by laryngeal cancer treatments such as irradiation.
This study aimed to determine the expression of the Cap43 gene in supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, and to evaluate any correlation between Cap43 gene expression and tumour-associated macrophage infiltration.
Four human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were cultured (Hep2, KB, Ca9-22 and HSC-3) and expression of the Cap43 gene was analysed by Western blotting. In addition, paraffin-embedded samples of supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and normal supraglottic laryngeal mucosa from 84 patients were analysed immunohistochemically using antibodies to Cap43 and cluster of differentiation 68 glycoprotein. Patients' clinical status was compared with their immunohistochemical results.
All four head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines exhibited Cap43 expression. The Hep2, Ca9-22 and HSC-3 cells showed a markedly higher level of Cap43 protein than the KB cells. A statistically significant difference was found in Cap43 expression, comparing different differentiation levels and comparing different metastasis stages, for supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma. The number of tumour-associated macrophages correlated with expression of Cap43, not only in the tumour area (r = 0.3708, p = 0.0005) but also in the peritumour area (r = 0.2847, p = 0.0087).
In supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, overexpression of the Cap43 gene is associated with tumour differentiation and acts an important suppressive factor in the process of tumour metastasis. The Cap43 gene may be a cancer-specific marker. High expression of the Cap43 gene appeared to correlate with infiltration of tumour-associated macrophages.