To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We summarize the findings from an interlaboratory study conducted between ten international research groups and investigate the use of the commonly used maximum separation distance and local concentration thresholding methods for solute clustering quantification. The study objectives are: to bring clarity to the range of applicability of the methods; identify existing and/or needed modifications; and interpretation of past published data. Participants collected experimental data from a proton-irradiated 304 stainless steel and analyzed Cu-rich and Ni–Si rich clusters. The datasets were also analyzed by one researcher to clarify variability originating from different operators. The Cu distribution fulfills the ideal requirements of the maximum separation method (MSM), namely a dilute matrix Cu concentration and concentrated Cu clusters. This enabled a relatively tight distribution of the cluster number density among the participants. By contrast, the group analysis of the Ni–Si rich clusters by the MSM was complicated by a high Ni matrix concentration and by the presence of Si-decorated dislocations, leading to larger variability among researchers. While local concentration filtering could, in principle, tighten the results, the cluster identification step inevitably maintained a high scatter. Recommendations regarding reporting, selection of analysis method, and expected variability when interpreting published data are discussed.
By performing the multi-epoch monitoring observation with KaVA at 43 GHz, we investigate the kinematics of the notable newborn bright component C3 located at the tip of the recurrent jet of 3C 84. During 2015 August-September,we discover the positional flip of the C3 component about 0.4 milli-arcsecond in angular scale. The flux density of the C3 component coherently showed the monotonic increase after the flip during our monitoring period. These phenomena are in good agreement with characteristic behaviors of a jet propagation in clumpy ambient medium predicted in hydrodynamical simulations.
A number of laser facilities coming online all over the world promise the capability of high-power laser experiments with shot repetition rates between 1 and 10 Hz. Target availability and technical issues related to the interaction environment could become a bottleneck for the exploitation of such facilities. In this paper, we report on target needs for three different classes of experiments: dynamic compression physics, electron transport and isochoric heating, and laser-driven particle and radiation sources. We also review some of the most challenging issues in target fabrication and high repetition rate operation. Finally, we discuss current target supply strategies and future perspectives to establish a sustainable target provision infrastructure for advanced laser facilities.
To determine the characteristics of acute phase nystagmus in patients with cerebellar lesions, and to identify a useful indicator for differentiating central lesions from peripheral lesions.
Acute phase nystagmus and the appearance of neurological symptoms were retrospectively investigated in 11 patients with cerebellar stroke.
At the initial visit, there were no patients with vertical nystagmus, direction-changing gaze evoked nystagmus or pure rotatory nystagmus. There were four cases with no nystagmus and seven cases with horizontal nystagmus at the initial visit. There were no neurological symptoms, except for vertigo and hearing loss, in any cases at the initial visit. The direction and type of nystagmus changed with time, and neurological symptoms other than vertigo appeared subsequently to admission.
It is important to observe the changes in nystagmus and other neurological findings for the differential diagnosis of central lesions.
To evaluate the effectiveness of tympanostomy tube placement in controlling symptoms of intractable Ménière's disease.
Fifteen patients with intractable Ménière's disease underwent tympanostomy tube placement in the affected ear. Post-operative changes in vertigo attacks and hearing level were recorded, and were evaluated according to American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery criteria.
At 12 months after treatment, 3 patients (20 per cent) showed complete control of vertigo, 7 (47 per cent) showed substantial control and 2 (13 per cent) showed limited control; 3 patients (20 per cent) required other treatment. At 24 months after treatment, 7 patients (47 per cent) showed complete control of vertigo, 3 (20 per cent) showed substantial control and 1 (7 per cent) showed limited control; 1 patient required other treatment 15 months after tympanostomy tube placement.
There is no definite pathophysiological explanation for the effect of tympanostomy tube placement in reducing vertigo attacks. This treatment is not effective for all patients with intractable Ménière's disease. However, tympanostomy tube placement might be an additional surgical therapeutic option to consider prior to contemplating other, more invasive treatments.
The nearby radio galaxy M87 offers a unique opportunity for exploring the connection between γ-ray production and jet formation at an unprecedented linear resolution. However, the origin and location of the γ-rays in this source is still elusive. Based on previous radio/TeV correlation events, the unresolved jet base (radio core) and the peculiar knot HST-1 at >120 pc from the nucleus are proposed as candidate site(s) of γ-ray production. Here we report our intensive, high-resolution radio monitoring observations of the M87 jet with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) and the European VLBI Network (EVN) from February 2011 to October 2012. During this period, an elevated level of the M87 flux is reported at TeV with VERITAS. We detected a remarkable flux increase in the radio core with VERA at 22/43 GHz coincident with the VHE activity. Meanwhile, HST-1 remained quiescent in terms of its flux density and structure at radio. These results strongly suggest that the TeV γ-ray activity in 2012 originates in the jet base within 0.03 pc (projected) from the central supermassive black hole.
The growth temperature dependence of the
film’s crystalline quality is reported.
films are grown on sapphire substrates from 570 to 650 °C with low-temperature
buffers by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The X-ray rocking curves and reciprocal space mappings of the symmetric reflection (0 0 0 2) and asymmetric reflection (1 0 1 2) are measured with high resolution X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that the crystallinity is sensitive to the growth temperature for MOVPE
InN. At growth temperature 580 °C, highly crystalline
film has been obtained, for which the full-width-at-half-maxima of (0 0 0 2) and (1 0 1 2) rocking curves are 24 and 28 arcmin, respectively. The crystalline quality deteriorates drastically when the growth temperature exceeds 600 °C. Combined with the carrier concentration and mobility, the approach to improve the quality of
film by MOVPE is discussed.
This paper deals with a lithium/tin combined target to increase the conversion efficiency of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) of 13.5 nm emission from laser-produced plasma. The bilayer target of glass/lithium (20 nm)/tin (50 nm) exhibits a sharp and strong emission in comparison with a Sn bulk target. The reverse coating of glass/tin/lithium was unstable and EUV could not be observed. By using nano-porous SnO2 and an electrochemical deposition of lithium, nano-structured lithium/tin composite was prepared, and was stable without deliquescence of lithium.
Capsules with a thin aerogel shell were prepared by the OO/W/OI emulsion process. (Phloroglucinol carboxylic acid)/formaldehyde (PF) was used as the water phase (W) solution to form the shell of the capsule. PF is a linear polymer prepared from phloroglucinol carboxylic acid. The viscosity of the PF solution can reach a high level of 9×10−5 m2/s without gelation while resorcinol/formaldehyde (RF) gelates at ~3–4×10−5 m2/s. Using the viscous PF solution, capsule with a 17 µm gel shell was fabricated. This thickness satisfies the specification of the first phase of Fast Ignition Realization Experiment (FIREX-I) at Osaka University. When PF gel was extracted to remove the organic solvent, shrinkage of 9% occurred. The final density of the PF aerogel was 145 mg/cm3. Both the shell thickness and density can satisfy the specification of FIREX-I. The pore size of the PF aerogel was less than 100 nm while that of RF was 200–500 nm. The SEM showed that PF had particle-like foam structure while RF had fibrous-like foam structure.
The insular cortex is located in the centre of the cerebral hemisphere, having connections with the primary and secondary somatosensory areas, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdaloid body, prefrontal cortex, superior temporal gyrus, temporal pole, orbitofrontal cortex, frontal and parietal opercula, primary and association auditory cortices, visual association cortex, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and motor cortex. Accordingly, dense connections exist among insular cortex neurons. The insular cortex is involved in the processing of visceral sensory, visceral motor, vestibular, attention, pain, emotion, verbal, motor information, inputs related to music and eating, in addition to gustatory, olfactory, visual, auditory, and tactile data. In this article, the literature on the relationship between the insular cortex and neuropsychiatric disorders was summarized following a computer search of the Pub-Med database. Recent neuroimaging data, including voxel based morphometry, PET and fMRI, revealed that the insular cortex was involved in various neuropsychiatric diseases such as mood disorders, panic disorders, PTSD, obsessive-compulsive disorders, eating disorders, and schizophrenia. Investigations of functions and connections of the insular cortex suggest that sensory information including gustatory, olfactory, visual, auditory, and tactile inputs converge on the insular cortex, and that these multimodal sensory information may be integrated there.
We present a series of experimental results, and their interpretation,
connected to various aspects of the hydrodynamics of laser produced
plasmas. Experiments were performed using the Prague PALS iodine laser
working at 0.44 μm wavelength and irradiances up to a few
1014 W/cm2. By adopting large focal spots and
smoothed laser beams, the lateral energy transport and lateral expansion
have been avoided. Therefore we could reach a quasi one-dimensional regime
for which experimental results can be more easily and properly compared to
available analytical models.
The surface tension of the Fe-P binary liquid solution was computed using a Butler's model in wide composition and temperature ranges by adopting the activity coefficient data that were evaluated from the phase diagram calculation. In the surface tension modeling, the Fe-P binary system was assumed as the Fe-Fe3P pseudo-binary system. The results of the computation were critically compared with the experimental data of the literature considering the effects of the size of the adsorbed elements and the interactions among them. The results of the computation at 1823 K showed good agreement with the selected experimental data of the literature in a wide composition range from 0 to 15 mass%P. Furthermore, the results of the computation at 0.5 mass%P showed good correlation with the selected experimental data of the literature in a wide temperature range from 1823 K to 1923 K.
A nationwide study was undertaken to determine the susceptibility to penicillin and serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Japan. S. pneumoniae was isolated from 114 adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia over 22 months at 20 hospitals and medical centres in different regions in Japan. All but five isolates were from sputum. Forty-eight isolates (42·1%) were susceptible, 40 (35·1%) showed intermediate resistance (MIC, 0·12–1·0 μg/ml) and 26 (22·8%) were resistant (MIC, [ges ]2·0 μg/ml) to penicillin G. All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone (breakpoint 1 μg/ml), imipenem (4 μg/ml) and vancomycin (4 μg/ml). Most were resistant to erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin; only two were resistant to levofloxacin. Differences were found in the distribution of serotypes among isolates showing susceptibility to penicillin (predominant types 3, 6B, and 19F), intermediate resistance (6B, 14, 19F, and 23F) and full resistance (19F and 23F). PFGE typing showed that 14 of the 25 strains of serotype 19F had a single DNA profile, pattern A, a pattern closely similar to that of the Taiwan multidrug-resistant 19F clone. Twelve pattern A strains were not susceptible to penicillin but carried the macrolide resistance gene mef(A). The DNA profiles of the 15 strains of 23F were also heterogeneous but six were highly similar (pattern b) yet distinct from the Spanish multidrug-resistant 23F clone although possibly related to the Taiwan multidrug-resistant 23F clone. The pattern b strains were not susceptible to penicillin and also harboured either mef(A) or erm(B). Our results indicate that multidrug-resistant pneumococci are spreading rapidly in Japan. Efforts to prevent the spread of the pandemic multidrug-resistant serotypes should be intensified.
From the irradiation resistance and high-temperature strength, oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels are candidate materials for advanced and fusion reactors. For the development of advanced steels the key issue is to homogenize nano-particles into matrix. Recent studies have indicated that Ti addition can homogenize Y-Ti complex particles into ferrite matrix, but the reason of the effect of additional elements has not been clarified. In this model study, we focus on the effect of additional elements, such as IV and V families and other oxide formers, which can control potentially the distribution of the oxide particles. The materials used in this study were based on Fe-9Cr-Y2O3 alloys which were mechanical alloyed (MA) from the powder of Fe, Cr and Y2O3, which was added systematically with the element of Ti, Zr, Ta, V, Nb, Hf, Al, Si and others. Usually ODS fabrication process is required for hot extrusion, but we annealed up to 1150 C for simplify the microstructure. To evaluate the distribution of ODS particles; we used TEM equipped with EDS after electro-polishing or FIB techniques. (1) In the case of Si or Al addition, oxides were disappeared after MA process, which means Y2O3 and other elements should be in solution at non-equilibrium condition. Two types of oxides of Y2O3 and Al2O3 or SiO2 developed after the annealing at 850 C, but only complex oxides were developed after the annealing at 1150 C. This result suggests that the oxide formation is independent process for Y and Si or Al. (2) In the case of Ti addition, oxides also were disappeared after MA process, but developed after annealing at 1150 C. This means that Ti can stabilize complex oxides of Y and Ti, and enhance the fine distribution of the oxides comparing with simple Fe-9Cr-Y2O3 alloy.
A formation of SiO2/4H-SiC interfaces by oxidizing deposited poly-Si on a 4H-SiC substrate and high temperature hydrogen annealing at low pressure ( 8.5×102 Pa ) has been investigated. The oxidation rate of deposited poly-Si was approximately 100 times faster than that of a SiC. Hydrogen annealing more effectively reduced the flat band voltage shift ( ΔVfb ) of the 4H-SiC MOS structure than argon and vacuum annealing. Moreover, the good SiO2/4H-SiC interface was formed because ΔVfb decreased as the oxidation temperature increased.
Crystal-originated pits are known as the defects responsible for B-mode Time Zero Dielectric Break-down (TZDB) of the gate oxide grown on the surface of Si wafers. In order to clarify the breakdown mechanism, we have analyzed the structure of those defects formed at the surface of bare and oxidized wafers. In the latter case the analysis has been done both before and after gate oxide breakdown. Electric breakdown has been accomplished by Cu decoration method, recognized as an effective tool for unambiguous detection and positioning of the defects causing B-mode TZDB. As revealed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM), crystal-originated pits at the bare wafer surface are polyhedral pits having about 5-nm-thick oxide layer on the inner walls. During gate oxidation the thermal oxide is growing faster on the pit walls than on the wafer surface, except for the pit comers where the oxide thinning has been observed. Resulting concave comers of the oxidized pits are suggested to be the weak spots where B-mode TZDB occurs.