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This paper is an extension of our previous paper (Mašek and Rohlena, 2015), where we applied a transform method for the solution of Vlasov–Maxwell set of equations in a one-dimensional geometry to describe the Raman backscattering of the heating ns laser wave in the external corona of the generated laser plasma in a strongly non-linear regime. The method is stabilized by a simplified Fokker–Planck collision term, which, in turn, is used for a study of the influence of collisional and collisionless damping mechanisms of the daughter electron plasma wave (EPW) on the instability development and their competition resulting in a different instability behavior in various plasma configurations. The physics of trapped electrons is studied in detail and compared to the resulting Raman reflectivity. The Raman reflectivity was found to depend strongly on the intensity of laser irradiation in the different regions of the plasma corona. This is discussed in detail from the point of view of trapped electrons behavior in the EPW. Moreover, a study of the Raman reflectivity dependence on the electron–ion collision frequency (average plasma ionization) is presented, too. The results supplement the physical picture of the collision and collisionless processes influencing the Raman instability non-linear development.
We investigated the effects of Fascioloides magna infection on the serum biochemistry values of the naturally infected red deer population in eastern Croatia. The investigation was performed on 47 red deer with F. magna infection confirmed patho-anatomically in 27 animals (57.4%). Fibrous capsules and migratory lesions were found in 14 deer while only fibrous capsules without migratory lesions were found in 13 deer. In 13 deer both immature and mature flukes were found, in 5 deer only immature flukes were found and in 9 deer only mature flukes were found. Fascioloides magna infected deer with fibrous capsules and migratory lesions had significantly higher values for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and globulin, and lower values for albumin/globulin ratio and glucose compared to uninfected deer. Fascioloides magna infected deer with fibrous capsules without the presence of migratory lesions had higher values for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and globulin, and lower values for albumin/globulin ratio and glucose, than the uninfected deer. The number of immature flukes was positively correlated with values of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), LDH, GLDH, urea and triglycerides. The number of migratory lesions was positively correlated with GGT, GLDH, globulin and urea values. The creatinine value was positively correlated with the number of mature flukes. The trial showed that F. magna infection causes significant changes in serum biochemistry. Moreover, these changes do not completely resemble changes following F. hepatica infection. Further investigation of changes in liver enzymes and other serum metabolites in controlled, experimentally induced fascioloidosis in red deer is needed to better understand the pathogenesis of F. magna.
Our earlier papers demonstrate a very simple method of plasma jet formation, consisting in irradiating a massive planar target of a relatively high atomic number by a partly defocused laser beam. Our present interest is concentrated on interaction of the plasma jet with other media. This paper is aimed at investigations of interaction of two jets launched successively on Cu target. Our attention was paid to the role of radiative cooling in the plasma jet formation. The experiment was carried out at the PALS iodine laser facility. The laser provided a 250-ps (full width at half maximum) pulse with energy of 130 J at the third harmonic frequency (λ3 = 0.438 µm). Two successive jets were produced on a massive flat Cu target provided with a cylindrical channel 5 mm long and 400 µm in diameter. Since the focal spot diameter of the laser beam on the target surface was larger than that of the channel (800 µm), the annular irradiation of the target face resulted in creation of the first plasma jet, whereas the second jet was produced by action of the central part of laser beam on the channel wall. Three-frame interferometric system, X-ray streak camera, and a set of ion collectors were used as diagnostic tools.
Recent experimental results demonstrated that well formed plasma jets can be produced at laser interaction with targets made of materials with high atomic number (A ≥ 29 where A = 29 corresponds to Cu). On the contrary, it is impossible to launch a plasma jet on low-A material targets like plastic. This paper is aimed at explanation of this difference by considering mechanisms responsible for plasma jet formation, i.e., the radiative cooling of ablative plasma and the influence of target irradiation annular profile speculated hitherto, newly complemented by different expansion regimes of the Cu and plastic plasmas (provided by numerical simulations). The experiment was carried out with the PALS iodine laser. Two different planar massive targets, plastic and Cu, as well as the plastic target covered by thin Cu layers of various thicknesses were irradiated by the third harmonic laser beam of energy of 30 J, pulse duration of 250 ps (full width at half maximum), and the focal spot radius of 400 µm. To find the most suitable range of these layers (from 28 to 190 nm) a simple analytical model of laser-driven evaporation was developed. Three-frame laser interferometer and an X-ray streak camera were used as two main diagnostic tools. Numerical modeling was performed with the use of two-dimensional hydrodynamic code ATLANT-HE. Results provided from experiments and theoretical analyses have proved that the process of plasma jet formation is rather complex. Relative importance of the three mechanisms mentioned above depends on the target irradiation geometry as well as the target material used.
Interactions of laser driven plasma jets with He and Ar gas puffs was investigated experimentally by means of three-frame interferometric/shadowgraphic system and three-frame X-ray pinhole camera. A defocused iodine laser beam using the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) interacting with massive planar Cu targets generated high-speed well-collimated plasma jets. The PALS third harmonic (0.438 µm), with pulse duration of 250 ps (full width at half maximum), and energy of 100 J was employed in two irradiation geometries: with an incidence normal to the target surface and with an oblique one (30° with respect to the target normal), in order to minimize the heating of the ambient gas by the laser beam. The results of these interaction experiments, in particular, those obtained in case of the oblique incidence geometry, are presented and discussed. They show the effect of the double shock formation in ambient gases: starting by the ablative plasma action, followed by that of the jet.
This paper is devoted to investigations of laser energy transfer into solid targets with respect to the focusing lens focal point position relative to the solid target surface as obtained at the PALS laser facility. The third harmonic of the PALS laser beam with energy ~90 J and pulse duration ~250 ps (FWHM) was used for irradiation of two kinds of targets made of Cu: a slab and a 3.6 µm thick foil. The focal point of the beam was located either inside or in front of the target surface, and care was taken to ensure the same laser spot radii in both cases (250 µm). It was demonstrated that these two opposite focal point positions give rise to significantly different laser-plasma interactions: with either depression or maximum of the laser intensity distribution in the center of the beam, respectively. It was also verified that the focal point position inside of the target is favorable for plasma jets creation, whereas the opposite case is more effective for acceleration of flyers.
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that interacts with calcium storage organelles and induces calcium-dependent signalling in macrophages. This study was performed to determine whether Toxoplasma induces changes in intracellular calcium in these cells. Ratiometric imaging of live, Fura-2 loaded macrophages challenged with T. gondii revealed robust elevations in intracellular calcium. These elevations were late in onset, beginning 15–20 min after addition of parasites and occurred in up to 20% of macrophages in an imaging field. Further characterization of these events revealed that they follow from challenge with live T. gondii, but not heat-killed parasites or soluble Toxoplasma antigen (STAg). Parasite-induced calcium elevations derived from extracellular sources, and were independent of host recognition factors MyD88 and CCR5. These findings indicate that Toxoplasma gondii alters calcium homeostasis in macrophages and this activity is independent of known pathways involved in the innate recognition of this organism.
Our recent experimental results demonstrate that the formation of plasma jets is a fundamental process accompanying the laser produced plasma expansion, if a massive planar target with relatively high atomic number is irradiated by a defocused laser beam. In this paper some new results on the influence of target irradiation conditions on plasma jet parameters are presented. The experiment was carried out at the PALS iodine laser facility, with the third harmonic beam of the pulse duration of 250 ps (FWHM). The beam energies varied in the range of 13–160 J, the focal spot radii in the range of 35–600 µm. The planar massive targets used in the experiment were made of Cu, Ag and Ta. For measurements of the electron density evolution a three frame interferometric system was employed. The jets were observed in the whole range of the laser energy used. The initial velocities of the plasma jets produced in the reported experiment reached the value of up to 7·107 cm/s, the jets were up to 4 mm long including the jet pedestal and about 400 µm in diameter. Calculations of the efficiency of the plasma jet production show that it decreases with increasing the laser energy.
We present a series of experimental results, and their interpretation,
connected to various aspects of the hydrodynamics of laser produced
plasmas. Experiments were performed using the Prague PALS iodine laser
working at 0.44 μm wavelength and irradiances up to a few
1014 W/cm2. By adopting large focal spots and
smoothed laser beams, the lateral energy transport and lateral expansion
have been avoided. Therefore we could reach a quasi one-dimensional regime
for which experimental results can be more easily and properly compared to
available analytical models.
Interactions of sub-nanosecond pulses of kJ-class iodine laser
“PALS” with low-density foams and acceleration of Al foils by
the pressure of the heated foam matter are investigated here, both
experimentally and theoretically. X-ray streak camera is used for
evaluation of the speed of energy transfer through the porous foam
material. The shock-wave arrival on the rear side of the target is
monitored by optical streak camera. Accelerated foil velocities, measured
by three-frame optical interferometers, and shadowgraphs, reach up to
107 cm/s. The accelerated foil shape is smooth without any
signature of small-scale structures present in the incident laser beam.
Conversion efficiencies as high as 14% of the laser energy into the
kinetic energy of Al foil are derived. Experimental results compare well
with our two-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations and with an approximate
Formation of transverse inhomogeneities in the corona of a
solid target irradiated by an inhomogeneous main laser pulse
and a uniform background pulse was observed experimentally via
side-on shadowgraphy. The experimental results were successfully
interpreted using a two-dimensional hydrodynamics code. Our
simulations identified the onset of sharp contact boundaries
between plasma streams of different expansion velocities. The
formation and the decay of the contact boundaries is investigated
in detail. When the background pulse is used as a laser prepulse,
a layer of coronal plasma is formed that enhances main pulse
collisional absorption in underdense plasma and creates conditions
for an efficient thermal smoothing of the transverse inhomogeneities.
The smoothing mechanism, that is due to the thermal
conductivity in the laser plasma generated by a double
pulse, is examined. Plasma preformed by a second harmonics
prepulse serves as a low density gradient plasma for impacting
the main pulse, the frequency of which was tripled for
improving the laser-target coupling. The effect of the
preformed plasma on the thermal smoothing of the heating
pulse, which was split to create two foci on the target
surface, was explored by varying the time delay between
the prepulse and the main pulse. The smoothing effect was
monitored by a pair of pinhole cameras: one viewing side-on
and the other one placed at the rear side of the target.
Spatially resolved X-ray emission spectra were recorded
to determine the density and temperature distributions
in the plasma. The maximum smoothing effect was observed
for the time delay t = 0.4–0.7 ns.
Maximum charge states of ions registered in the far expansion zone from laser-produced plasma of Al, Co, Ni, Cu, Ta, W, Pt, Au, Pb, and Bi are presented. The Thomson parabola spectrometer was used to display a general view of the ion species of an expanding plasma while detailed ion charge-energy spectra were determined by the cylindrical electrostatic ion energy analyzer. The current densities of highly charged ion groups above 20 mA/cm2 were measured by use of an ion collector at a distance of ∼1 m from the target. The photodissociation iodine laser system PERUN (λ = 1.315 μm, power density up to ∼1015 W cm−2) was employed as a driver.
This paper describes the first results of a feasibility study undertaken at CERN to determine whether a laser-produced plasma can be used as a source of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. A variety of important measurements have been made, and the results are encouraging. Furthermore, a beam of highly charged light ions produced by the laser ion source has been accelerated successfully in a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) structure.
Results are presented of experiments on ion production from Ta targets using a short pulse (350–600 ps in focus) illumination with focal power densities exceeding 1014 Wcm-2 at the wavelength of an iodine photodissociation laser (1.315 μm) and its harmonics. Strong evidence of the existence of tantalum ions with the charge state +45 near the target surface was obtained by X-ray spectroscopy methods. The particle diagnostics point to the existence of frozen high charge states (<53+) of Ta ions in the far expansion zone at about 2 m from the target. The measured charge state-ion energy distribution indicates the highest energy (>4 MeV) for the highest observed charge states. A tentative theoretical explanation of the observed anomalous charge state freezing phenomenon in the expanding plasma produced by a subnanosecond laser pulse is given.
The results of an experimental investigation of iodine laser interaction with Al targets obtained on the laser system PERUN (λ = 1.315 μm, E < 50 J, τ ∼ 350 ps) by means of corpuscular diagnostics, are presented. Ion velocity distributions, angular distributions, and electron temperature were determined. The plasma electron temperature Te ∼ 550 ± 100 eV was weakly dependent on laser intensity in the range Iλ2 ∼ 1014-1015 Wcm-2 μm2. Maximal velocity (energy) for the Al ions was estimated as V ∼ 9 × 107 cm/s (∼ 110 keV) and the maximal measured charge state was z = 13. It was shown that the diameter of the area emitting high energy ions is a few times larger than the focus diameter (80 μm), which indicates a strong influence of lateral heat transport on plasma parameters. The hot electron temperature Te.h was estimated to be in the range 6–10 keV. On the basis of Langmuir probe measurements, the electron temperature of expanded Al plasma at a distance of about 100 cm was estimated to be Te ∼ 3 eV
The interaction of a plasma produced by irradiation of perforated foils with laser pulses was studied. The laser beam of the first harmonics of the iodine laser (λ = 1.315 μm) system PERUN was focused by anf/2 optics (f = 20 cm) on a hole in the foil target of high-Z material. The laser energy and the temporal shape of the pulses were monitored both before and behind the hole. Foils of two different materials (Pb, Cu) were used, and a series of hole diameters 2rH ranging from 100 μm to 500 μm were tested. The diameter of the laser focal spot 2r0 was about 150 μm. For hole diameters smaller than 300 μm, a shortening of the laser pulse was observed, demonstrating the effect of plasma shutter. The pulse shortening, which depends on the hole diameter, corresponds to the reduction in the pulse energy passing through the hole. An analysis of the experimental data is based on hydrodynamic computations, and the physics of the process is illustrated by a simple analytical model.
The first harmonics beam generated by an iodine laser system was focused by an f/2 optics on an Al foil target. The X-ray output from the laser plasma both in the line and broad-band spectra was registered over an interval around the “ideal” focus. It was found that the maximum X-ray power is not obtained in the focus itself but for a somewhat larger focal spot outside the focus. To explain this phenomena, temperature and density measurements were in addition made. The plasma temperature evaluated from both the line (He-like Al XII resonant line and j, k, l satellites) and broad-band spectra (two foil method) was also measured and found to be largely constant in the vicinity of the focus. The line and broad-band temperatures differ, the broad-band temperature being about 25% higher. The electron density was equally determined using an intercombination line.
A construction and exploitation of a comparatively large I photodissociation laser system (Perun) is reported. This system was constructed in cooperation between the Institute of Physics of Czechoslovak Academy of Science in Prague and the Lebedev Institute of Physics of Soviet Academy of Science in Moscow. The laser produces subnanosecond pulses of maximum 50 J and 0·5 ns in duration. Although the pumping time by Xe flashlamps is long enough for an acoustic disturbance released in the active medium to introduce an optical inhomogeneity across the whole cross section of the laser tube, the radiation can be focused in a focal spot of a power density exceeding 1014 W/cm2, enough for meaningful laser target experiments both for a laser plasma production or a modification of solid surfaces. The repetition time of the shots is about 10 min.
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