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The longevity of Cassini’s exploration of Saturn’s atmosphere (a third of a Saturnian year) means that we have been able to track the seasonal evolution of atmospheric temperatures, chemistry and cloud opacity over almost every season, from solstice to solstice and from perihelion to aphelion. Cassini has built upon the decades-long ground-based record to observe seasonal shifts in atmospheric temperature, finding a thermal response that lags behind the seasonal insolation with a lag time that increases with depth into the atmosphere, in agreement with radiative climate models. Seasonal hemispheric contrasts are perturbed at smaller scales by atmospheric circulation, such as belt/zone dynamics, the equatorial oscillations and the polar vortices. Temperature asymmetries are largest in the middle stratosphere and become insignificant near the radiative-convective boundary. Cassini has also measured southern-summertime asymmetries in atmospheric composition, including ammonia (the key species forming the topmost clouds), phosphine and para-hydrogen (both disequilibrium species) in the upper troposphere; and hydrocarbons deriving from the UV photolysis of methane in the stratosphere (principally ethane and acetylene). These chemical asymmetries are now altering in subtle ways due to (i) the changing chemical efficiencies with temperature and insolation and (ii) vertical motions associated with large-scale overturning in response to the seasonal temperature contrasts. Similarly, hemispheric contrasts in tropospheric aerosol opacity and coloration that were identified during the earliest phases of Cassini’s exploration have now reversed, suggesting an intricate link between the clouds and the temperatures. Finally, comparisons of observations between Voyager and Cassini (both observing in early northern spring, one Saturn year apart) show tantalizing suggestions of non-seasonal variability. Disentangling the competing effects of radiative balance, chemistry and dynamics in shaping the seasonal evolution of Saturn’s temperatures, clouds and composition remains the key challenge for the next generation of observations and numerical simulations.
The current research examined the association between state disfavoured tax on soda (i.e. the difference between soda sales tax and the tax on food products generally) and a summary score representing the strength of state laws governing competitive beverages (beverages that compete with the beverages in the federally funded school lunch programme) in US schools.
The Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (CLASS) summary score reflected the strength of a state's laws restricting competitive beverages sold in school stores, vending machines, school fundraisers and à la carte cafeteria items. Bridging the Gap (BTG) is a nationally recognized research initiative that provided state-level soda tax data. The main study outcome was the states’ competitive beverage summary scores for elementary, middle and high school grade levels, as predicted by the states’ disfavoured soda tax. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted, adjusting for year and state.
Data from BTG and CLASS were used.
BTG and CLASS data from all fifty states and the District of Columbia from 2003 to 2010 were used.
A higher disfavoured soda sales tax was generally associated with an increased likelihood of having strong school beverage laws across grade levels, and especially when disfavoured soda sales tax was >5 %.
These data suggest a concordance between states’ soda taxes and laws governing beverages sold in schools. States with high disfavoured sales tax on soda had stronger competitive beverage laws, indicating that the state sales tax environment may be associated with laws governing beverage policy in schools.
This chapter focuses on the mechanisms by which environmental exposures can induce endocrine disruption. It highlights the mechanisms that play important roles in developmental programming. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals, which mimic the activity of endogenous hormones and activate receptors are termed agonists, whereas those that inhibit receptor activity are termed antagonists. During the perinatal period programming of the endocrine axis occurs, making this a vulnerable period of exposure to endogenous and exogenous stimuli. Among the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), xenoestrogens have garnered a significant amount of attention due to the well-known effects of the xenoestrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) in humans, and the identification of many other estrogenic anthropogenic chemicals. Metabolism plays a key role in maintaining hormone homeostasis. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals can disturb normal hormone homeostasis, which can have both direct and indirect effects on the reproductive function of both wildlife and human populations.
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