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Cognitive disturbances are common and disabling features of major depressive disorder (MDD). Previous studies provide limited insight into the co-occurrence of hot (emotion-dependent) and cold (emotion-independent) cognitive disturbances in MDD. Therefore, we here map both hot and cold cognition in depressed patients compared to healthy individuals.
We collected neuropsychological data from 92 antidepressant-free MDD patients and 103 healthy controls. All participants completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery assessing hot cognition including emotion processing, affective verbal memory and social cognition as well as cold cognition including verbal and working memory and reaction time.
The depressed patients showed small to moderate negative affective biases on emotion processing outcomes, moderate increases in ratings of guilt and shame and moderate deficits in verbal and working memory as well as moderately slowed reaction time compared to healthy controls. We observed no correlations between individual cognitive tasks and depression severity in the depressed patients. Lastly, an exploratory cluster analysis suggested the presence of three cognitive profiles in MDD: one characterised predominantly by disturbed hot cognitive functions, one characterised predominantly by disturbed cold cognitive functions and one characterised by global impairment across all cognitive domains. Notably, the three cognitive profiles differed in depression severity.
We identified a pattern of small to moderate disturbances in both hot and cold cognition in MDD. While none of the individual cognitive outcomes mapped onto depression severity, cognitive profile clusters did. Overall cognition-based stratification tools may be useful in precision medicine approaches to MDD.
To date no comprehensive evaluation has appraised the likelihood of bias or the strength of the evidence of peripheral biomarkers for bipolar disorder (BD). Here we performed an umbrella review of meta-analyses of peripheral non-genetic biomarkers for BD.
The Pubmed/Medline, EMBASE and PsycInfo electronic databases were searched up to May 2015. Two independent authors conducted searches, examined references for eligibility, and extracted data. Meta-analyses in any language examining peripheral non-genetic biomarkers in participants with BD (across different mood states) compared to unaffected controls were included.
Six references, which examined 13 biomarkers across 20 meta-analyses (5474 BD cases and 4823 healthy controls) met inclusion criteria. Evidence for excess of significance bias (i.e. bias favoring publication of ‘positive’ nominally significant results) was observed in 11 meta-analyses. Heterogeneity was high for (I2 ⩾ 50%) 16 meta-analyses. Only two biomarkers met criteria for suggestive evidence namely the soluble IL-2 receptor and morning cortisol. The median power of included studies, using the effect size of the largest dataset as the plausible true effect size of each meta-analysis, was 15.3%.
Our findings suggest that there is an excess of statistically significant results in the literature of peripheral biomarkers for BD. Selective publication of ‘positive’ results and selective reporting of outcomes are possible mechanisms.
The control of Johne's disease requires the identification of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-positive herds. Boot swabs and liquid manure samples have been suggested as an easy-to-use alternative to sampling individual animals in order to diagnose subclinical Johne's disease at the herd level, but there is a need to evaluate performance of this approach in the field. Using a logistic regression model, this study aimed to calculate the threshold level of the apparent within-herd prevalence as determined by individual faecal culture, thus allowing the detection of whether a herd is MAP positive. A total of 77 boot swabs and 75 liquid manure samples were taken from 19 certified negative and 58 positive dairy herds. Faecal culture, three different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods and the combination of faecal culture with PCR were applied in order to detect MAP. For 50% probability of detection, a within-herd prevalence threshold of 1·5% was calculated for testing both matrices simultaneously by faecal culture and PCR, with the threshold increased to 4·0% for 90% probability of detection. The results encourage the use of boot swabs or liquid manure samples, or a combination both, for identifying MAP-positive herds and, to a certain extent, for monitoring certified Johne's disease-negative cattle herds.
Archaeological data and research results are essential to addressing such fundamental questions as the origins of human culture; the origin, waxing, and waning of civilizations and cities; the response of societies to long-term climate changes; and the systemic relationships implicated in human-induced changes in the environment. However, we lack the capacity for acquiring, managing, analyzing, and synthesizing the data sets needed to address important questions such as these. We propose investments in computational infrastructure that would transform archaeology’s ability to advance research on the field’s most compelling questions with an evidential base and inferential rigor that have heretofore been impossible. At the same time, new infrastructure would make archaeological data accessible to researchers in other disciplines. We offer recommendations regarding data management and availability, cyberinfrastructure tool building, and social and cultural changes in the discipline. We propose funding synthetic case studies that would demonstrate archaeology’s ability to contribute to transdisciplinary research on long-term social dynamics and serve as a context for developing computational tools and analytical workflows that will be necessary to attack these questions. The case studies would explore how emerging research in computer science could empower this research and would simultaneously provide productive challenges for computer science research.
Recovery Ice Stream has multiple branches reaching far into the East Antarctic ice sheet. We use new airborne and ground-based geophysics to give the first comprehensive overview of the upper catchment and, by constraining the physical setting, to advance our understanding of the controlling mechanisms for the onset of fast flow. The 400 km wide ice stream extends towards the Recovery Subglacial Lakes, a region characterized by a crustal boundary, a change in bed roughness, a bedrock topographic step and four topographic basins (A–D), three of which (A–C) contain subglacial water. All these characteristics are considered potential causal mechanisms that contribute to the onset of fast flow. In Lakes B and C the subglacial water is located in basins with sharp downstream ridges, in contrast to the gently sloping ridge on the downstream margin of Lake A. The fastest-flowing branch of the ice stream emanates from Lake A. The presence of multiple causal mechanisms along the four Recovery Lakes allows us to identify basal water as a dominant factor for the onset of fast flow, but only if it is stored in a shallow-sided basin where it can lubricate the flow downstream. Relatively minor topographic barriers appear to inhibit streaming.
This article represents a systematic effort to answer the question, What are archaeology’s most important scientific challenges? Starting with a crowd-sourced query directed broadly to the professional community of archaeologists, the authors augmented, prioritized, and refined the responses during a two-day workshop focused specifically on this question. The resulting 25 “grand challenges” focus on dynamic cultural processes and the operation of coupled human and natural systems. We organize these challenges into five topics: (1) emergence, communities, and complexity; (2) resilience, persistence, transformation, and collapse; (3) movement, mobility, and migration; (4) cognition, behavior, and identity; and (5) human-environment interactions. A discussion and a brief list of references accompany each question. An important goal in identifying these challenges is to inform decisions on infrastructure investments for archaeology. Our premise is that the highest priority investments should enable us to address the most important questions. Addressing many of these challenges will require both sophisticated modeling and large-scale synthetic research that are only now becoming possible. Although new archaeological fieldwork will be essential, the greatest pay off will derive from investments that provide sophisticated research access to the explosion in systematically collected archaeological data that has occurred over the last several decades.
Whether late-onset depression is a risk factor for or a prodrome of dementia remains unclear. We investigated the impact of depressive symptoms and early- v. late-onset depression on subsequent dementia in a cohort of elderly general-practitioner patients (n = 2663, mean age = 81.2 years).
Risk for subsequent dementia was estimated over three follow-ups (each 18 months apart) depending on history of depression, particularly age of depression onset, and current depressive symptoms using proportional hazard models. We also examined the additive prediction of incident dementia by depression beyond cognitive impairment.
An increase of dementia risk for higher age cut-offs of late-onset depression was found. In analyses controlling for age, sex, education, and apolipoprotein E4 genotype, we found that very late-onset depression (aged ⩾70 years) and current depressive symptoms separately predicted all-cause dementia. Combined very late-onset depression with current depressive symptoms was specifically predictive for later Alzheimer's disease (AD; adjusted hazard ratio 5.48, 95% confidence interval 2.41–12.46, p < 0.001). This association was still significant after controlling for cognitive measures, but further analyses suggested that it was mediated by subjective memory impairment with worries.
Depression might be a prodrome of AD but not of dementia of other aetiology as very late-onset depression in combination with current depressive symptoms, possibly emerging as a consequence of subjectively perceived worrisome cognitive deterioration, was most predictive. As depression parameters and subjective memory impairment predicted AD independently of objective cognition, clinicians should take this into account.
A comparative study for picosecond and nanosecond laser structuring was performed in order to identify structure geometries and dimensions that efficiently reduce the significant volume changes during electrochemical cycling of SnO2, a promising anode material. Line structures with widths of 20 μm could significantly improve cycling stability of 3 μm thick magnetron sputtered SnO2 thin films. A reduction of structure size led to further improvement of capacity retention. Free-standing conical micro-structures exhibited the best cycling behavior.
Initial clinical trials using Trichuris suis eggs (TSO) in autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, revealed a striking suppressive effect on the autoimmune response. Here, we analysed the effect of TSO therapy on the course of multiple sclerosis (MS), as a Th1/Th17-associated autoimmune disease. Different immunological parameters in four patients with secondary progressive MS were surveyed during a 6-month therapy with TSO, focusing on the modulation of T-cell Th1–Th2 balance as well as on the innate immune response. We are able to show a slight downregulation of the Th1-associated cytokine pattern, especially relevant in interleukin (IL)-2 (P < 0.05 after 2 months of therapy), with a temporary increase of Th2-associated cytokines such as IL-4. Furthermore, mild eosinophily and changes in CD4+ and CD8+T cells and natural killer (NK) CD56 bright cell numbers were observed. The findings observed in this group of patients suggest that TSO therapy has a moderate immunomodulatory impact in MS.
Epiphytic vascular plants and bryophytes constitute an important component of cloud forest canopies. Because of their different characteristics compared with leaves and other tree structural elements, epiphytes can be expected to behave differently in terms of their ability to intercept and store rain and cloud water, whereas losses through evaporation and drip may also occur at different rates. The water dynamics of epiphytes were studied in a windward lower montane cloud forest in northern Costa Rica. The exposed site experienced frequent horizontal precipitation (fog and wind-driven rain) as well as strong winds. In situ epiphyte wetting experiments were conducted at different levels within the 20-m canopy during a series of fog events using pre-weighed branches with known epiphyte biomass, while making simultaneous measurements of fog density and drop-size spectrum on a tower extending above the canopy. Rates of water loss via evaporation from pre-wetted epiphyte-laden branches suspended at different heights within the canopy were determined on dry days. Storage capacities were determined by gravimetric means, both in the field and under controlled conditions. Total epiphyte biomass of the forest was estimated through systematic sampling of three emergent trees and five sub-canopy trees in combination with a diameter survey of four plots of 1000 m2 each. Fog interception rates by epiphyte-laden branches differed with position in the canopy, with an average rate of 54.7 ml hour−1 kg−1 of oven-dry biomass. Absorption rates were correlated with fog liquid water content and initial moisture content of the sample. […]
Astrometric observations of binary brown dwarfs yield dynamical masses of the components independently of theoretical models. We give an update on our long-term high-resolution spectroscopic and photometric monitoring programme of spatially resolved binary brown dwarfs using ground-based adaptive optics and the Hubble Space Telescope. We present current orbital fits, including refined dynamical mass estimate of the Kelu-1 AB system. The results seem to support the previously reported trend that evolutionary and atmospheric models might underestimate the mass of very-low-mass stars and brown dwarfs.
The snow surface roughness at centimetre and millimetre scales is an important parameter related to wind transport, snowdrifts, snowfall, snowmelt and snow grain size. Knowledge of the snow surface roughness is also of high interest for analyzing the signal from radar sensors such as SAR, altimeters and scatterometers. Unfortunately, this parameter has seldom been measured over snow surfaces. The techniques used to measure the roughness of other surfaces, such as agricultural or sand soils, are difficult to implement in polar regions because of the harsh climatic conditions. In this paper we develop a device based on a laser profiler coupled with a GPS receiver on board a snowmobile. This instrumentation was tested successfully in midre Lovénbreen, Svalbard, in April 2006. It allowed us to generate profiles of 3 km sections of the snow-covered glacier surface. Because of the motion of the snowmobile, the roughness signal is mixed with the snowmobile signal. We use a distance/frequency analysis (the empirical mode decomposition) to filter the signal. This method allows us to recover the snow surface structures of wavelengths between 4 and 50 cm with amplitudes of >1 mm. Finally, the roughness parameters of snow surfaces are retrieved. The snow surface roughness is found to be dependent on the scales of the observations. The retrieved RMS of the height distribution is found to vary between 0.5 and 9.2 mm, and the correlation length is found to be between 0.6 and 46 cm. This range of measurements is particularly well adapted to the analysis of GHz radar response on snow surfaces.
This paper describes two aspects of research aimed at harnessing the triplet energy generated in electron-hole recombination in polymer electroluminescent devices. The purpose is to design solution-processible phosphorescent organometallic triplet emitters and to design high triplet energy polymer hosts that can transfer triplet energy to the phosphorescent guests. The method employed Suzuki cross coupling reactions to incorporate either phosphorescent cores or high energy triplet monomers covalently into polymer hosts to evaluate their optoelectronic properties. The results showed (i) efficient energy transfer from polyfluorene hosts to red phosphorescent guests and (ii) that pyridine and carbazole monomers could raise triplet energies of hosts. It is concluded that these approaches offer promise in the design of solution processible electrophosphorescent materials for red and green light emitting devices.
Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance data from India were analysed to examine sensitivity of poliovirus isolation from stool specimens and the added sensitivity obtained from collection of a second stool specimen. Analysis was restricted to Indian AFP cases, 1998–2000, with two adequate stool specimens. The proportion of cases confirmed with wild poliovirus isolation by the second specimen only was calculated, regardless of specimen quality. Overall specimen sensitivity (1998–2000) was 81% using the first specimen, 78% using the second, and 96% using both. Sensitivity increased from 1998 to 2000, with slightly higher sensitivity each year for the first specimen. The second specimen increased sensitivity by 15% overall and contributed more when the first specimen was collected late or was in poor condition. As wild poliovirus disappears, increased sensitivity provided by a second stool specimen may reduce the risk of missing circulating virus.
Cubic phase GaN/AlxGa1-xN Multi Quantum Well structures were grown by rf-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs (001) substrates. X-ray measurements showed a high phase purity of the epilayers and revealed an Aluminum incorporation between 9 % and 49 %, respectively. The QW luminescence was tuned between 3.25 eV and 3.4 eV by means of the variation of QW barrier Aluminum content and QW width. Strong Cathodoluminescence (CL) from the GaN QWs and the underlying cubic AlxGa1-xN bulk material was observed at room temperature. The spatial localization of the QW emission was unambiguously determined by depth-resolved CL measurements. Combined with a model of energy-dependent penetration, diffusion, and recombination, these variations indicate a value of about 20 nm for the minority carrier diffusion length within the AlxGa1-xN confinement layer. The assignment of AlxGa1-xN bulk and GaN luminescence was further supported by employing a simple effective-mass quantum mechanical model.
Recent results on the local bonding of nitrogen in dilute GaInAsN and AlGaAsN on GaAs are reviewed, revealing that bonding of nitrogen in GaInAsN is controlled by an interplay between bond cohesive energy and reduction of local strain. Thus, III-N bonding in GaInAsN can be changed from Ga-N to In-N by post-growth thermal annealing. In AlGaAsN, in contrast, nitrogen bonds preferentially to Al, i.e. Al-N bonds are formed, due to the much larger cohesive energy of the Al-N bond. Further, results on indium-rich highly strained GaInAsN quantum wells on InP substrate are reported, showing room-temperature photoluminescence at wavelengths up to 2.3 μm. This result demonstrates the potential of high indium content dilute GaInAsN for InP-based long wavelength diode lasers.
The optical properties of Carbon doped cubic GaN epilayers have been investigated by temperature and intensity dependent photoluminescence measurements. RF-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy equipped with an e-beam-evaporation source for carbon doping is used to grow the cubic GaN layers on GaAs (001) substrates. With increasing Carbon flux a new photoluminescence line at 3.08 eV appeared at 2K. This line is attributed to a donor acceptor transistion, which involves the shallow CN acceptor. From the spectral position the binding energy of the C acceptor is estimated to be about EC = 0.215 eV. Our experiments demonstrate that C indeed introduces a shallow acceptor in cubic GaN with an acceptor binding energy, which is about 15 meV lower than that observed for the Mg acceptor in cubic GaN. However, at high C fluxes a deep red luminescence band appeared at 2.1 eV, indicating compensation effects.
Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has been used for the characterization of AlGaN/GaN and InGaN/GaN heterostructures. The resulting pseudodielectric function spectra were analyzed using a multilayer approach, describing the dielectric functions of the individual layers by a parametric oscillator model. From this analysis, the dielectric function spectra of GaN, AlxGa1−xN (x≤0.16), and In0.13Ga0.87N were deduced. Further, the dependence of the AlxGa1−xN band gap energy on the Al mole fraction was derived and compared with photoluminescence data recorded on the same material. The SE band gap data are compatible with a bowing parameter close to 1 eV for the composition dependence of the AlxGa1−xN gap energy. Finally, the parametric dielectric functions have been used to model the pseudodielectric function spectrum of a complete GaN/AlGaN/InGaN LED structure.