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To determine the effect of three psycholinguistic variables—lexical frequency, age of acquisition (AoA), and neighborhood density (ND)—on lexical-semantic processing in individuals with non-fluent (nfvPPA), logopenic (lvPPA), and semantic primary progressive aphasia (svPPA). Identifying the scope and independence of these features can provide valuable information about the organization of words in our mind and brain.
We administered a lexical decision task—with words carefully selected to permit distinguishing lexical frequency, AoA, and orthographic ND effects—to 41 individuals with PPA (13 nfvPPA, 14 lvPPA, 14 svPPA) and 25 controls.
Of the psycholinguistic variables studied, lexical frequency had the largest influence on lexical-semantic processing, but AoA and ND also played an independent role. The results reflect a brain-language relationship with different proportional effects of frequency, AoA, and ND in the PPA variants, in a pattern that is consistent with the organization of the mental lexicon. Individuals with nfvPPA and lvPPA experienced an ND effect consistent with the role of inferior frontal and temporoparietal regions in lexical analysis and word form processing. By contrast, individuals with svPPA experienced an AoA effect consistent with the role of the anterior temporal lobe in semantic processing.
The findings are in line with a hierarchical mental lexicon structure with a conceptual (semantic) and a lexeme (word-form) level, such that a selective deficit at one of these levels of the mental lexicon manifests differently in lexical-semantic processing performance, consistent with the affected language-specific brain region in each PPA variant.
Rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) simulation was used to model the absorption in periodic arrays of GaAs0.73P0.27 nanowires (NWs) on Si substrates dependent upon the diameter (D), length (L), and spacing (center-to-center distance, or pitch, P) of the NWs. Based on this study, two resonant arrangements for a top NW array sub-cell having the highest limiting short-circuit current densities (Jsc) were found to be close to D = 150 nm, P = 250 nm and D = 300 nm, P = 500 nm, both featuring the same packing density of 0.28. Even though a configuration with thinner NWs exhibited the highest Jsc = 19.46 mA/cm2, the array with D = 350 nm and P = 500 nm provided current matching with the underlying Si sub-cell with Jsc = 18.59 mA/cm2. Addition of a rear-side In0.81Ga0.19As nanowire array with D = 800 nm and P = 1000 nm was found to be suitable for current matching with the front NW sub-cell and middle Si. However, with thinner and sparser In0.81Ga0.19As NWs with D = 700 nm and P = 1000 nm, the Jsc of the bottom sub-cell was increased from 17.35 mA/cm2 to 18.76 mA/cm2 using a planar metallic back surface reflector, thus achieving a current matching with the top and middle cells.
To define the scope of an outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease (LD), to identify the source, and to stop transmission.
DESIGN AND SETTING
Epidemiologic investigation of an LD outbreak among patients and a visitor exposed to a newly constructed hematology-oncology unit.
An LD case was defined as radiographically confirmed pneumonia in a person with positive urinary antigen testing and/or respiratory culture for Legionella and exposure to the hematology-oncology unit after February 20, 2014. Cases were classified as definitely or probably healthcare-associated based on whether they were exposed to the unit for all or part of the incubation period (2–10 days). We conducted an environmental assessment and collected water samples for culture. Clinical and environmental isolates were compared by monoclonal antibody (MAb) and sequence-based typing.
Over a 12-week period, 10 cases were identified, including 6 definite and 4 probable cases. Environmental sampling revealed Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1) in the potable water at 9 of 10 unit sites (90%), including all patient rooms tested. The 3 clinical isolates were identical to environmental isolates from the unit (MAb2-positive, sequence type ST36). No cases occurred with exposure after the implementation of water restrictions followed by point-of-use filters.
Contamination of the unit’s potable water system with Lp1 strain ST36 was the likely source of this outbreak. Healthcare providers should routinely test patients who develop pneumonia at least 2 days after hospital admission for LD. A single case of LD that is definitely healthcare associated should prompt a full investigation.
A growing body of evidence suggests that indicators of social disadvantage are associated with an increased risk of psychosis. However, only a few studies have specifically looked at cumulative effects and long-term associations. The aims of this study are: To compare the prevalence of specific indicators of social disadvantage at, and prior to, first contact with psychiatric services in patients suffering their first episode of psychosis and in a control sample. To explore long-term associations, cumulative effects, and direction of effects.
We collected information on social disadvantage from 332 patients and from 301 controls recruited from the local population in South London. Three indicators of social disadvantage in childhood and six indicators of social disadvantage in adulthood were analysed.
Across all the domains considered, cases were more likely to report social disadvantage than were controls. Compared with controls, cases were approximately two times more likely to have had a parent die and approximately three times more likely to have experienced a long-term separation from one parent before the age of 17 years. Cases were also more likely than controls to report two or more indicators of adult social disadvantage, not only at first contact with psychiatric services [odds ratio (OR) 9.5], but also at onset of psychosis (OR 8.5), 1 year pre-onset (OR 4.5), and 5 years pre-onset (OR 2.9).
Greater numbers of indicators of current and long-term exposure are associated with progressively greater odds of psychosis. There is some evidence that social disadvantage tends to cluster and accumulate.
Evidence has accumulated that implicates childhood trauma in the aetiology of psychosis, but our understanding of the putative psychological processes and mechanisms through which childhood trauma impacts on individuals and contributes to the development of psychosis remains limited. We aimed to investigate whether stress sensitivity and threat anticipation underlie the association between childhood abuse and psychosis.
We used the Experience Sampling Method to measure stress, threat anticipation, negative affect, and psychotic experiences in 50 first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, 44 At-Risk Mental State (ARMS) participants, and 52 controls. Childhood abuse was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire.
Associations of minor socio-environmental stress in daily life with negative affect and psychotic experiences were modified by sexual abuse and group (all pFWE < 0.05). While there was strong evidence that these associations were greater in FEP exposed to high levels of sexual abuse, and some evidence of greater associations in ARMS exposed to high levels of sexual abuse, controls exposed to high levels of sexual abuse were more resilient and reported less intense negative emotional reactions to socio-environmental stress. A similar pattern was evident for threat anticipation.
Elevated sensitivity and lack of resilience to socio-environmental stress and enhanced threat anticipation in daily life may be important psychological processes underlying the association between childhood sexual abuse and psychosis.
Many older adults experience what is clinically recognised as frailty but little is known about the perceptions of, and attitudes regarding, being frail. This qualitative study explored adults' perceptions of frailty and their beliefs concerning its progression and consequences. Twenty-nine participants aged 66–98 with varying degrees of frailty, residing either in their homes or institutional settings, participated in semi-structured interviews. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using a Grounded Theory approach. Self-identifying as ‘frail’ was perceived by participants to be strongly related to their own levels of health and engagement in social and physical activity. Being labelled by others as ‘old and frail’ contributed to the development of a frailty identity by encouraging attitudinal and behavioural confirmation of it, including a loss of interest in participating in social and physical activities, poor physical health and increased stigmatisation. Using both individual and social context, different strategies were used to resist self-identification. The study provides insights into older adults' perceptions and attitudes regarding frailty, including the development of a frailty identity and its relationship with activity levels and health. The implications of these findings for future research and practice are discussed.
The extent of Greek influence on the Roman practice of homosexuality during the period has been a matter of controversy, with some historians asserting its pervasiveness and others emphasizing indigenous Roman traditions. The comedies of T. Maccius Plautus provide earliest literary references to homosexual relations, but none of the plots of his twenty-one extant plays are primarily about erotic relations among men. Modern readers of the varied poetic corpus of G. Valerius Catullus are often struck by the free employment of sexually explicit language pertaining to both homosexual and heterosexual acts. It is in the poetry of the Augustan Golden Age that one come close to the bisexual indifference characteristic of much Greek erotic poetry. Juvenal's satiric world is populated by a similar menagerie of freaks and oddities. The second century CE, the period of the so-called Pax Romana, was a time of relative political stability and the apogee of Roman prosperity and power.
The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) is used in geriatric medicine as a means to manage the health care needs of older adults and to grade frailty. We modified the CGA so that it could be completed independently by care partners (usually family) and be used to grade frailty. Our objective was to examine the feasibility of a care partner completing the CGA at the time of the first prehospital encounter.
A prospective, observational study was conducted with a convenience sample of patients ≥ 70 years accompanied by a knowledgeable care partner. Feasibility was measured by the time required and percent completeness of items on the form based on completion by the care partner and by paramedic perception of utility.
Subjects (N 5 104) were enrolled with three postenrolment exclusions due to ineligibility. Most participants were older women living in their own home. The mean time to complete the questionnaire was 18.7 minutes (SD 11.3; median 15 minutes; interquartile range 12-20 minutes). Only 64% of the care partners recorded the time it took. Nineteen percent of paramedics completed a follow-up survey, and all felt screening for frailty was worthwhile and most (> 70%) thought that the CP-CGA may be a useful approach. The study was limited by recruitment bias of potentially eligible patients, a high level of missingness in the outcome measures of interest, and low paramedic participation rates.
We observed a high rate of item completeness of questionnaires with a mean time to complete of 18.7 minutes in a convenience sample of older patients. A small sample of paramedics universally endorsed the utility of screening for frailty in the prehospital setting, and many thought the CP-CGA was a helpful tool.
Alternate aluminum and arsenic precursors were investigated for InAlAs grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE). The quality of the InAlAs growths was investigated by secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to measure impurity concentrations. Trends are extracted from SIMS measurements for each precursor as a function of V/III ratio and growth temperature. Two arsenic precursors, arsine and tertiarybutylarsine (TBAs), were chosen to compare InAlAs growth quality. The impurity concentrations measured by SIMS decrease as the V/III ratio increases, for both arsine and TBAs growths. Impurities also decrease as growth temperature increases. Two aluminum precursors, trimethylaluminum (TMAl) and tritertiarybutylaluminum (TTBAl), were used to compare the effect of alumimum precursor on carbon and oxygen impurity levels. TMAl is widely studied in literature, though TTBAl is less common. This study represents the first report using the TTBAl precursor for InAlAs growth. Each aluminum source is used in conjunction with each aforementioned arsenic precursor in order to compare all possible precursor combinations. TMAl growths demonstrated decreasing impurities with increasing V/III ratio. TTBAl growths did not exhibit such a dependence, impurity concentrations remained virtually constant regardless of V/III ratio.
The insertion of nanostructured materials (such as quantum wells, wires, and dots) into the intrinsic region of p-i-n solar cells introduces an intermediate band within the bandgap of the host material. It has been shown that the sub-bandgap conversion provided by the nanostructured materials, enhances the short circuit current as well as the overall efficiency of InAs quantum dots (QD) imbedded in GaAs superlattice (SL) solar cells . As a contender for space applications, it is necessary to subject these solar cell structures to temperatures encountered in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO), probing for any material degradation. Herein, we focus on temperature dependent characterization using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) of InAs QD enhanced GaAs solar cell structures with varying growth parameters. The structures characterized can be classified into three groups: (1) GaP strain compensation coverage, (2) GaAs barrier coverage, and (3) InAs coverage for QD formation. HRXRD rocking curves of each structure focusing around the GaAs peak are analyzed at a range of temperatures up to 200˚C. Although no noticeable shifts in the SL peaks are detected, interfacial diffusion decreased the resolution of fringes produced by reflections at the SL interfaces in test structures with varying InAs QD coverage. Unbalanced strain in the same structures shows a distortion in the GaAs peaks.
Coral reefs have experienced a profound shift in community structure in recent decades, a pattern that contrasts with the apparent constancy of Caribbean reef zonation over the past 2 million years. The abrupt decline in branching Acropora palmata and massive frame-builders like Montastrea annularis in the Caribbean is troubling, and similar patterns have been reported from virtually every ocean. As we ponder the future of coral reefs, we must be mindful that our best monitoring records span perhaps half a century – and those are exceedingly rare. “Pristine” reefs may not have existed since Columbus sailed for the new world, and anthropogenic impacts probably extend even farther back in time.
Despite the vagaries of evolutionary change, taphonomy and time averaging, the geologic record still represents a unique source of important information about the processes that have controlled community structure and reef building in the absence of human influences. The creation of rigid and elevated structures requires calcification rates that are capable of filling the accommodation space created by rising sea level. This has been complicated over the past three to four decades as accelerated sea-level rise has been joined by a suite of stresses that probably slow accretion. Explaining the recent reef decline and posing realistic models of future change will require an understanding of carbonate cycling in the past, the processes that have been involved and a quantitative assessment of how anthropogenic stresses are affecting both.
At the least a look back in time may help to constrain the thresholds at which change might be expected to occur in the future. At best, the context gained from examining the “recent” geological past may provide insights into which possible solutions are most consistent with observed patterns at larger spatial and temporal scales.
This article describes a number of velocity-based moving mesh numerical methods for multidimensional nonlinear time-dependent partial differential equations (PDEs). It consists of a short historical review followed by a detailed description of a recently developed multidimensional moving mesh finite element method based on conservation. Finite element algorithms are derived for both mass-conserving and non mass-conserving problems, and results shown for a number of multidimensional nonlinear test problems, including the second order porous medium equation and the fourth order thin film equation as well as a two-phase problem. Further applications and extensions are referenced.
The prevalence of psychological distress and common mental disorders has been shown to peak in midlife but analyses have ignored the association of poor material circumstances with prevalence. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the midlife prevalence peak occurs only in lower-income households.
Pooled data were used from the annual Health Survey for England, a nationally representative cross-sectional study, on community-dwelling individuals aged ⩾16 years from years 1997 to 2006 (n=100 457). 12-item General Health Questionnaire scores, reported mental illness diagnoses and receipt of relevant medication were assessed in relation to household income and age. Analyses were separated by gender and adjusted for age, ethnicity, smoking, social class, education and co-morbidities.
Prevalence of psychological distress, diagnoses and treatments rose with age until early middle age and declined subsequently. In analyses conducted separately by income categories, this pattern was marked in low-income groups but absent in high-income groups. Income-related inequalities in the prevalence of psychological distress were greatest in midlife; for example, in men aged 45–54 years the odds ratio of receiving psychiatric medication in the lowest income group compared with the highest was 7.50 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.24–13.27] and in women aged 45–54 years the odds ratio of reporting mental illness was 10.25 (95% CI 6.16–17.05).
An increased prevalence of psychological distress, common mental disorder diagnoses and treatment in midlife is not a universal phenomenon but is found only in those in low-income households. This implies the phenomenon is not inevitable but is potentially manageable or preventable.