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To detect eating disorders and risky eating behaviour in early stages, screening tests are used. In order to examine as many adolescents as possible, these tests should be economic, i. e. as short as possible but at the same time they should fulfil the psychometric quality criteria. We compared the German version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26D) and the German version of the SCOFF test (which contains only five Yes-no questions) in a sample of 425 twelve year old girls and 382 boys from Thuringia, Germany. Although the EAT-26D reached higher psychometric properties, the SCOFF has been proved as a useful screening tool with a test-retest reliability of rtt = .73 and a maximum accuracy of 82% (area under the ROC curve). In reference to the EAT-26D (20 point cut-off) the sensitivity of the SCOFF was 78%, specificity 75%, positive predictive value 28%, and the negative predictive value, which is more relevant for screenings, was 96%. The construct validity reached r = .52.
We demonstrate the eclipsing binary detection performance of the Gaia variability analysis and processing pipeline using Hipparcos data. The automated pipeline classifies 1 067 (0.9%) of the 118 204 Hipparcos sources as eclipsing binary candidates. The detection rate amounts to 89% (732 sources) in a subset of 819 visually confirmed eclipsing binaries, with the period correctly identified for 80% of them, and double or half periods obtained in 6% of the cases.
We present the variability processing and analysis that is foreseen for the Gaia mission within Coordination Unit 7 (CU7) of the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC). A top level description of the tasks is given.
We conducted an epidemiological, observational cohort study to determine the incidence and complications of acute otitis media (AOM) in children aged <6 years. Data on physician-diagnosed AOM were collected from retrospective review of medical charts for the year preceding enrolment and then prospectively in the year following enrolment. The study included 5776 children in Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the UK. AOM incidence was 256/1000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 243–270] in the prospective study period. Incidence was lowest in Italy (195, 95% CI 171–222) and highest in Spain (328, 95% CI 296–363). Complications were documented in <1% of episodes. Spontaneous tympanic membrane perforation was documented in 7% of episodes. Both retrospective and prospective study results were similar and show the high incidence during childhood in these five European countries. Differences by country may reflect true differences and differences in social structure and diagnostic procedures.
Electron microscopy (EM), cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), and cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) are essential techniques used for characterizing basic virus morphology and determining the three-dimensional structure of viruses. Enveloped viruses, which contain an outer lipoprotein coat, constitute the largest group of pathogenic viruses to humans. The purification of enveloped viruses from cell culture presents certain challenges. Specifically, the inclusion of host-membrane-derived vesicles, the complete destruction of the viruses, and the disruption of the internal architecture of individual virus particles. Here, we present a strategy for capturing enveloped viruses on affinity grids (AG) for use in both conventional EM and cryo-EM/ET applications. We examined the utility of AG for the selective capture of human immunodeficiency virus virus-like particles, influenza A, and measles virus. We applied nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid lipid layers in combination with molecular adaptors to selectively adhere the viruses to the AG surface. This further development of the AG method may prove essential for the gentle and selective purification of enveloped viruses directly onto EM grids for ultrastructural analyses.
A generalized competition model for predators or parasites was developed
from data obtained from a specific parasite–host system. It was structured
in three parts. The first simulates the effects of exploitation, where the
number of attacks and their distribution among prey or hosts determine how
many prey or hosts survive. Since the negative binomial distribution
described these distributions consistently, the exploitation submodel was
developed from it. The second portion of the competition model concerned
interference between searching predators and parasites. Although
interference is a universal phenomenon, we were able to show that its
effects become important only at predator densities much higher than those
that occur in nature. Thus the interference component can be essentially
ignored. The third and final component concerned the outcome of competition
between parasite progeny within their host. It was developed from Fujii’s
competition model which allows for the simulation of both scramble and
contest types of competition.These three submodels of competition were
combined and coupled with a previously published model of the effects of
prey density on attack. In this way the full consequences of different prey
and predator densities could be simulated using a model whose constituent
parts had been carefully tested for descriptive adequacy. The simulations
showed the way individual predator attack, per cent predation, and progeny
production were affected by different degrees of contagion in the
distribution of attacks, by scramble vs. contest competition, and by the
degree to which parasites could avoid hosts already attacked.
We briefly review the controversy concerning the proper methodology for the assignment of soft x‐ray photoemission Si 2p core levels at Si/SiO2 interfaces. Evidence for Second nearest neighbor effects in the photoemission spectra of analogous free molecules in the gas phase are surveyed for the purpose of placing this controversy within a wider context. Physisorption experiments have been performed to inquire whether the second nearest neighbor effects found in free molecules are in any way reduced in their magnitude owing to the proximity to the highly polarizable Si surface. No evidence for such a diminution have been found.
The hydridospherosiloxane cluster H8Si8012 has been physisorbed onto Si(111)-H and soft X-ray Si 2p core-level photoemission spectra obtained. The results of these experiments provide strong support for previous binding energy assignments of HSi03 moieties at -3.6 eV.
Aluminum oxide powders doped with MgO (300 to 500 nm) were sintered to almost theoretical density within just 10–15 min at 1150 °C using a plasma-activated sintering process based on charging the loosely filled powders with an electric discharge prior to densification by resistance heating. The microstructure of the consolidated disks was examined by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and revealed excellent grain to grain contact with virtually no grain growth and structurally clean grain boundaries.
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to investigate grain boundary diffusion of Cu and Cr through 1000 Å thick Co films in the temperature range of 325°C to 400°C. Grain boundary diffusivities were determined by modeling the accumulation of Cu or Cr on Co surfaces as a function of time at fixed annealing temperature. The grain boundary diffusivity of Cu through Co is characterized by a diffusion coefficient, D0gb, of 2 × 104 cm2/sec and an activation energy, Ea,gb, of 2.4 eV. Similarly, Cr grain boundary diffusion through Co thin films occurs with a diffusion coefficient, Do,gb, of 6 × 10-2cm2/sec and an activation energy, Ea,gb of 1.8 eV. The Co film microstructure has been investigated before and after annealing by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron Microscopy. Extensive grain growth and texturing of the film occurred during annealing for Co deposited on a Cu underlayer. In contrast, the microstructure of Co deposited on a Cr underlayer remained relatively unchanged upon annealing. Magnetometer Measurements have shown that increased in-plane coercivity Hc, reduced remanence squareness S, and reduced coercive squareness S* result from grain boundary diffusion of Cu and Cr into the Co films.
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