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In current and next-generation weed control technologies, sequential applications of contact and systemic herbicides for POST control of troublesome weeds are needed to mitigate the evolution of herbicide resistance. A clear understanding of the impact auxin herbicide symptomology has on Palmer amaranth groundcover will aid optimization of sequential herbicide applications. Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted in Fayetteville, AR and a laboratory experiment was conducted in Lonoke, AR, in 2020 to evaluate changes in Palmer amaranth groundcover following an application of 2,4-D and dicamba with various nozzles, droplet sizes, and velocities. Field experiments utilized three nozzles: Extended Range (XR), Air Induction Extended Range (AIXR), and Turbo TeeJet Induction (TTI), to assess the effect of spray droplet size on changes in Palmer amaranth groundcover. Nozzle did not affect Palmer amaranth groundcover when dicamba was applied. However, nozzle selection did impact groundcover when 2,4-D was applied; the following nozzle order XR>AIXR>TTI reduced Palmer amaranth groundcover the greatest in both site-years of the field experiment. This result (XR>AIXR> TTI) matches percent spray coverage data for 2,4-D and is inversely related to spray droplet size data. Rapid reductions of Palmer amaranth groundcover from 100% at time zero to 39.4 to 64.1% and 60.0 to 85.8% were observed 180 minutes after application in greenhouse and field experiments, respectively, regardless of herbicide or nozzle. In one site-year of the greenhouse and field experiments, regrowth of Palmer amaranth occurred 10080 minutes (14 days) after an application of either 2,4-D or dicamba to larger than labeled weeds. In all experiments, complete reduction of live Palmer amaranth tissue was not observed 21 days after application with any herbicide or nozzle combination. Control of Palmer amaranth escapes with reduced groundcover may potentially lead to increased selection pressure on sequentially applied herbicides due to a reduction in spray solution contact with the targeted pest.
Understanding, categorizing, and using implementation science theories, models, and frameworks is a complex undertaking. The issues involved are even more challenging given the large number of frameworks and that some of them evolve significantly over time. As a consequence, researchers and practitioners may be unintentionally mischaracterizing frameworks or basing actions and conclusions on outdated versions of a framework.
This paper addresses how the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework has been described, summarizes how the model has evolved over time, and identifies and corrects several misconceptions.
We address 13 specific areas where misconceptions have been noted concerning the use of RE-AIM and summarize current guidance on these issues. We also discuss key changes to RE-AIM over the past 20 years, including the evolution to Pragmatic Robust Implementation and Sustainability Model, and provide resources for potential users to guide application of the framework.
RE-AIM and many other theories and frameworks have evolved, been misunderstood, and sometimes been misapplied. To some degree, this is inevitable, but we conclude by suggesting some actions that reviewers, framework developers, and those selecting or applying frameworks can do to prevent or alleviate these problems.
To examine the association between sociocultural pressures, body dissatisfaction and disordered eating among female French students.
Participants were 201 women from a Toulouse University (mean age=20.70 years, SD=2.56). Pressure perceived from the media, peers and parents was assessed using parallel scales. The questionnaire also assessed body dissatisfaction (BD), drive for thinness (DT), bulimia (BU) and self-reported height and weight.
Participants reported higher scores of peer pressure (mean= 6.87, SD=1.82), than media pressure (mean= 6.14, SD=2.32) and parental pressure (mean= 5.41, SD= 1.44). The difference between the pressure perceived from each source was significant (p< .001). BD was significantly correlated with pressure from the media (r= .25), peers (r= .19), and parents (r= .21). DT was also significantly correlated with pressure from all three sources (r= .21; r= .25 and r= .17 respectively). BU was significantly correlated only with media pressure (r= .16). Hierarchical regression revealed that BMI, and sociocultural pressures, accounted for 38% of the variance in BD F(4, 190)= 28.63, p=< 001, with BMI, media and parental pressure as predictors. BMI, media and peer pressure were predictors of DT F(4, 190)= 28.26, p=< 001, R2=21. BMI and media pressure were predictors of BU F(4, 190)= 6.41, p=< 001, R2=12.
Sociocultural pressure contributes strongly to body image and eating concern among French students. These findings highlight the importance of developing sociocultural models among French populations, and the need for prevention interventions that build on these frameworks.
Identifying the transmission sources and reservoirs of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) is a long-standing question for pneumococcal epidemiology, transmission dynamics, and vaccine policy. Here we use serotype to identify SP transmission and examine acquisitions (in the same household, local community, and county, or of unidentified origin) in a longitudinal cohort of children and adults from the Navajo Nation and the White Mountain Apache American Indian Tribes. We found that adults acquire SP relatively more in the household than other age groups, and children 2–8 years old typically acquire in their own or surrounding communities. Age-specific transmission probability matrices show that transmissions within household were mostly seen from older to younger siblings. Outside the household, children most often transmit to other children in the same age group, showing age-assortative mixing behavior. We find toddlers and older children to be most involved in SP transmission and acquisition, indicating their role as key drivers of SP epidemiology. Although infants have high carriage prevalence, they do not play a central role in transmission of SP compared with toddlers and older children. Our results are relevant to inform alternative pneumococcal conjugate vaccine dosing strategies and analytic efforts to inform optimization of vaccine programs, as well as assessing the transmission dynamics of pathogens transmitted by close contact in general.
A low-cost differential image motion monitor (DIMM), consisting of an 11-inch Celestron, an SBIG ST-4 autoguiding CCD camera and a PC, is described. Two such systems were used during June–July and November–December 1993 to make near-simultaneous seeing measurements at Freeling Heights in the Northern Flinders Ranges and at Siding Spring Observatory. The results of these campaigns show that the seeing-distribution is generally similar at both sites, with the most common seeing value being ~l·2″. Siding Spring does, however, have slightly more bad seeing (>2″) than Freeling Heights. Weather records from Arkaroola Resort (15 km south of Freeling Heights) indicate that there is ~15% less cloud cover at Freeling Heights than at Siding Spring. Episodes of rapid seeing deterioration at Siding Spring in winter are shown to coincide with warm air masses crossing the mountain.
Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and liquid-phase exfoliated multilayer graphene (MLG) material thin films were assembled at a polarizable organic/water interface. A simple, spontaneous route to functionalize/decorate the interfacial assembly of MLG and SWCNTs with noble metal nanoparticles, at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES), is reported. The formation of MLG- or SWCNT-based metal nanocomposites was confirmed using various microscopic (scanning electron, transmission electron, and atomic force microscopy) and several spectroscopic (energy dispersive x-ray and Raman spectroscopy) techniques. Increasing the interfacial deposition time of the metal nanoparticles on the assembled low-dimensional carbon material increased the amount of the metal particles/structures, resulting in greater coverage of the MLG or SWCNTs with metal nanoparticles. This low-cost and convenient solution chemistry based impregnation method can serve as a means to prepare nanoscale carbonaceous material-based metal nanocomposites for their potential exploitation as electro-active materials, e.g., new generation catalysts or electrode materials.
To report a case of meningioma arising from the nervus intermedius.
This paper comprises a case report, literature review, and discussion regarding the presentation of a nervus intermedius meningioma, comparing and contrasting this to other relevant neoplasms of the internal auditory canal and cerebellopontine angle.
Tumours of the cerebellopontine angle include vestibular schwannomas, facial schwannomas and, more rarely, nervus intermedius schwannomas. The nervus intermedius is a division of the facial nerve at the cerebellopontine angle, with parasympathetic and afferent somatic components. Our patient presented with progressive hearing loss. An ipsilateral internal auditory canal mass at the fundus, as indicated by magnetic resonance imaging and electroneuronography, was suggestive of vestibular schwannoma. Intra-operative dissection revealed a nervus intermedius tumour. Histological evaluation indicated a meningioma rather than a schwannoma.
This is the first reported case of meningioma involving the nervus intermedius. The implications this pathology may have on surgical approach, facial nerve outcomes, and the need for improved pre-operative imaging and intra-operative monitoring are discussed. A review of the current literature on nervus intermedius tumour is provided.
The optical properties and electronic structure of AlPO4, SiO2, Type I collagen, and DNA were examined to gain insight into the van der Waals-London dispersion behavior of these materials. Interband optical properties of AlPO4 and SiO2 were derived from vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry, and showed a strong dependence on the crystals’ constituent tetrahedral units, with strong implications for the role of phosphate groups in biological materials. The UV-Vis decadic molar absorption of four DNA oligonucleotides was measured, and showed a strong dependence on composition and stacking sequence. A film of Type I collagen was studied using spectroscopic ellipsometry, and showed a characteristic shoulder in the fundamental absorption edge at 6.05 eV. Ab initio calculations based on density functional theory corroborated the experimental results and provided further insights into the electronic structures, interband transitions and vdW-Ld interaction potentials for these materials.
This study investigated the relationships among stress, intrapersonal resiliency factors (self-esteem, locus of control, and optimism) and quality of life [QOL] (physical health and mental health) among caregivers of children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs). Participants consisted of 113 caregivers of children with HFASDs (males = 38.1%, females = 61.9%; age range = 27–62; 93.6% Caucasians) and 47 caregivers of typically developing children (males = 29.8%; females = 70.2%; age range = 30–56; 93.3% Caucasians). They completed a set of self-rating surveys on perceived locus of control, self-esteem, optimism, and QOL. Within-group inferential statistical analyses were applied. For the HFASD group analyses, two simultaneous regression analyses were used to study the independent effects of the three intrapersonal variables on the physical health and mental health QOL of the caregivers. Intrapersonal factors predicted self-reported mental health QOL but not physical health QOL in caregivers of children with HFASDs.
A baseline survey on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler flocks and Campylobacter spp. on broiler carcases in the UK was performed in 2008 in accordance with Commission Decision 2007/516/EC. Pooled caecal contents from each randomly selected slaughter batch, and neck and breast skin from a single carcase were examined for Campylobacter spp. The prevalence of Campylobacter in the caeca of broiler batches was 75·8% (303/400) compared to 87·3% (349/400) on broiler carcases. Overall, 27·3% of the carcases were found to be highly contaminated with Campylobacter (⩾1000 c.f.u./g). Slaughter in the summer months (June, July, August) [odds ratio (OR) 3·50], previous partial depopulation of the flock (OR 3·37), and an increased mortality at 14 days (⩾1·25% to <1·75%) (OR 2·54) were identified as significant risk factors for the most heavily Campylobacter-contaminated carcases. Four poultry companies and farm location were also found to be significantly associated with highly contaminated carcases.
Aragonite can grow from calcium carbonate solutions as the favored phase, at ambient conditions, in the presence of 1:1 volume % water:ethanol. Its form is single and branched needles, with pseudohexagonal symmetry. Morphological evidence demonstrates that all precipitated aragonite is twinned. The recently popularized hypothesis of nonclassical growth by nanocrystal self assembly cannot describe the aragonite crystal form. Rather, its formation is effectively described as spherulitic growth, i.e. by classical crystal growth theory.
The Gemini Observatories primarily operate a multi-instrument queue, with observers selecting observations that are best suited to weather and seeing conditions. The Target of Opportunity (ToO) observing mode is intended to allow observation of targets that cannot be specified in advance but which have a well defined external trigger such as distant supernovae or Gamma Ray bursts. In addition, the instrument and configuration best suited to observe the ToO may depend on properties of the event, such as brightness and redshift which again are impossible to know in advance. Queue observing naturally lends itself to Target of Opportunity (ToO) support since the time required to switch between programs and instruments is very short, and the staff observer is trained to operate all the available instruments and modes. Gemini Observatory has supported pre-approved ToO programs since beginning queue operations, and has implemented a rapid (less than 15 minutes response time) ToO mode since 2005. ToOs comprise a significant fraction of the queue (20–25% of the highest ranking band) nowadays. We discuss the ToO procedures, the statistics of rapid ToOs observing at Gemini North Observatory, the science related to GRBs and supernovae that this important mode has enabled.
Visual and verbal episodic memory deficits are putative endophenotypes for schizophrenia; however, the extent of any genetic overlap of these with schizophrenia is unclear. In this study, we set out to quantify the genetic and environmental contributions to variance in visual and verbal memory performance, and to quantify their genetic relationship with schizophrenia.
We applied bivariate genetic modelling to 280 twins in a classic twin study design, including monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) pairs concordant and discordant for schizophrenia, and healthy control twins. We assessed episodic memory using subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Revised (WMS-R).
Genetic influences (i.e. heritability) contributed significantly to variance in immediate recall of both verbal memory and visual learning, and the delayed recall of verbal and visual memory. Liability to schizophrenia was associated with memory impairment, with evidence of significant phenotypic correlations between all episodic memory measures and schizophrenia. Genetic factors were the main source of the phenotypic correlations for immediate recall of visual learning material; both immediate and delayed recall of verbal memory; and delayed recall of visual memory that, for example, shared genetic variance with schizophrenia, which accounted for 88% of the phenotypic correlation (rph=0.41) between the two.
Verbal memory and visual learning and memory are moderately heritable, share a genetic overlap with schizophrenia and are valid endophenotypes for the condition. The inclusion of these endophenotypes in genetic association studies may improve the power to detect susceptibility genes for schizophrenia.
During 2001–2002 we investigated current contamination of soils in several places in the Chornobyl zone. We have measured the content of alpha emitting isotopes Pu, 241Am, 154,155Eu, 90Sr, and 137Cs in layers of soil up to the depth of 30 cm. By including the two mechanisms of migration: convection and diffusion in our model, we were able to estimate the ecological and effective half-lives of self-purification processes for these layers of soil. Effective half-lives vary from 20 to 400 years dependent upon the type of soil and the isotopes.
Previous studies have documented that smoking during pregnancy (SDP) is associated with offspring externalizing problems, even when measured covariates were used to control for possible confounds. However, the association may be because of nonmeasured environmental and genetic factors that increase risk for offspring externalizing problems. The current project used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and their children, ages 4–10 years, to explore the relations between SDP and offspring conduct problems (CPs), oppositional defiant problems (ODPs), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems (ADHPs) using methodological and statistical controls for confounds. When offspring were compared to their own siblings who differed in their exposure to prenatal nicotine, there was no effect of SDP on offspring CP and ODP. This suggests that SDP does not have a causal effect on offspring CP and ODP. There was a small association between SDP and ADHP, consistent with a causal effect of SDP, but the magnitude of the association was greatly reduced by methodological and statistical controls. Genetically informed analyses suggest that unmeasured environmental variables influencing both SDP and offspring externalizing behaviors account for the previously observed associations. That is, the current analyses imply that important unidentified environmental factors account for the association between SDP and offspring externalizing problems, not teratogenic effects of SDP.
We find that among firms that file Chapter 11 those that are smaller have better operating performance, and are in higher operating margin industries spend less time in Chapter 11. Firms are more likely to emerge as going concerns and to achieve positive post reorganization profitability if they significantly reduce assets and liabilities while in Chapter 11. Higher pre-bankruptcy industry-adjusted operating margins and improvements in margin are associated with post-reorganization profitability but do not impact the decision to reorganize. These results reveal characteristics and actions associated with successful reorganizations and, furthermore, suggest that Chapter 11 allows promising firms to successfully reorganize.
V, I time-series photometry of the new Milky Way satellite recently discovered in the Bootes constellation (Belokurov et al. 2006) was collected at the TNG, WIRO and Loiano telescopes and used to search for variable stars. We have identified a non-negligible population of RR Lyrae variables, which confirms the presence of an old population in this newly discovered structure. The distribution of periods coupled with information on the evolutionary status of the system derived fromthe color-magnitude diagram provide important hints on the nature and history of this intriguing new companion of the Milky Way.