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The paper gives graphical and analytical investigation of the effect of critical beam power on self-focusing of cosh-Gaussian laser beams in collisionless magnetized plasma under ponderomotive non-linearity. The standard Akhmanov's parabolic equation approach under Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB) and paraxial approximations is employed to investigate the propagation of cosh-Gaussian laser beams in collisionless magnetized plasma. Especially, the concept of numerical intervals and turning points of critical beam power has evolved through graphical analysis of beam-width parameter differential equation of cosh-Gaussian laser beams. The results are discussed in the light of numerical intervals and turning points.
In this paper, self-focusing of asymmetric cosh-Gaussian laser beams in collisionless magnetized plasma has been studied. The non-linearity in dielectric constant considered herein is mainly due to the ponderomotive force. The non-linear coupled differential equations for the beam width parameters in transverse dimensions of the beam have been obtained by using WKB and paraxial approximations under parabolic equation approach. The numerical computation is completed by using fourth-order Runge–Kutta method. The effect of unlike decentered parameters in both transverse dimensions of the beam on self-focusing of cosh-Gaussian beams has been presented. Further, the effect of the static magnetic field and polarization modes of the laser has been explored.
Eleven widely used crop simulation models (APSIM, CERES, CROPSYST, COUP, DAISY, EPIC, FASSET, HERMES, MONICA, STICS and WOFOST) were tested using spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) data set under varying nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates from three experimental years in the boreal climate of Jokioinen, Finland. This is the largest standardized crop model inter-comparison under different levels of N supply to date. The models were calibrated using data from 2002 and 2008, of which 2008 included six N rates ranging from 0 to 150 kg N/ha. Calibration data consisted of weather, soil, phenology, leaf area index (LAI) and yield observations. The models were then tested against new data for 2009 and their performance was assessed and compared with both the two calibration years and the test year. For the calibration period, root mean square error between measurements and simulated grain dry matter yields ranged from 170 to 870 kg/ha. During the test year 2009, most models failed to accurately reproduce the observed low yield without N fertilizer as well as the steep yield response to N applications. The multi-model predictions were closer to observations than most single-model predictions, but multi-model mean could not correct systematic errors in model simulations. Variation in soil N mineralization and LAI development due to differences in weather not captured by the models most likely was the main reason for their unsatisfactory performance. This suggests the need for model improvement in soil N mineralization as a function of soil temperature and moisture. Furthermore, specific weather event impacts such as low temperatures after emergence in 2009, tending to enhance tillering, and a high precipitation event just before harvest in 2008, causing possible yield penalties, were not captured by any of the models compared in the current study.
Forage sorghum is an important component of the fodder supply chain in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world because of its high productivity, ability to utilize water efficiently and adaptability to a wide range of climatic conditions. Identification of high-yielding stable genotypes (G) across environments (E) is challenging because of the complex G × E interactions (GEI). In the present study, the performance of 16 forage sorghum genotypes over seven locations across the rainy seasons of 2010 and 2011 was investigated using GGE biplot analysis. Analysis of variance revealed the existence of significant GEI for fodder yield and all eight associated phenotypic traits. Location accounted for a higher proportion of the variation (0·72–0·91), while genotype contributed only 0·06–0·21 of total variation in different traits. Genotype-by-location interactions contributed 0·02–0·13 of total variation. Promising genotypes for fodder yield and each of the associated traits could be identified effectively using a graphical biplot approach. The majority of test locations were highly correlated. A ‘Which-won-where’ study partitioned the test locations into two mega-environments (MEs): ME1 was represented by five locations with COFS 29 as the best genotype, while ME2 had two locations with S 541 as the best genotype. The existence of two MEs suggested a need for location-specific breeding. Genotype-by-trait biplots indicated that improvement for forage yield could be achieved through indirect selection for plant height, leaf number and early vigour.
The objective of the present study was to compare the performance of seven different, widely applied crop models in predicting heat and drought stress effects. The study was part of a recent suite of model inter-comparisons initiated at European level and constitutes a component that has been lacking in the analysis of sources of uncertainties in crop models used to study the impacts of climate change. There was a specific focus on the sensitivity of models for winter wheat and maize to extreme weather conditions (heat and drought) during the short but critical period of 2 weeks after the start of flowering. Two locations in Austria, representing different agro-climatic zones and soil conditions, were included in the simulations over 2 years, 2003 and 2004, exhibiting contrasting weather conditions. In addition, soil management was modified at both sites by following either ploughing or minimum tillage. Since no comprehensive field experimental data sets were available, a relative comparison of simulated grain yields and soil moisture contents under defined weather scenarios with modified temperatures and precipitation was performed for a 2-week period after flowering. The results may help to reduce the uncertainty of simulated crop yields to extreme weather conditions through better understanding of the models’ behaviour. Although the crop models considered (DSSAT, EPIC, WOFOST, AQUACROP, FASSET, HERMES and CROPSYST) mostly showed similar trends in simulated grain yields for the different weather scenarios, it was obvious that heat and drought stress caused by changes in temperature and/or precipitation for a short period of 2 weeks resulted in different grain yields simulated by different models. The present study also revealed that the models responded differently to changes in soil tillage practices, which affected soil water storage capacity.
The relationship of leaf weight ratio (LWR), leaf area ratio (LAR), stomatal frequency and dry matter (DM) production with yield and with photosynthetic efficiency, as reflected by 14CO2 fixation rate, was studied in fox-tail millet (Setaria italica) for three consecutive years. Several genotypes were identified which combined small leaf area and/or low stomatal numbers per plant with productivity under rain-fed conditions equal to that of genotypes with large stomatal numbers. 14CO2 studies in these genotypes showed that the rate of carbon fixation by the leaves was greater, at any canopy position, than in the corresponding large LA/large DM types. Genotypes with consistently small stomatal numbers per plant, associated with good dry matter accumulation and productivity, may also show small transpirational water loss under rain-fed or drought conditions. It is concluded that such genotypes are desirable for better productivity under these conditions.
Gold eyelid implantation is widely considered the procedure of choice to reanimate the upper eyelid in paralytic lagophthalmos. Commercially supplied implants are not readily available in all places and are sometimes cumbersome to import.
We aimed to devise a method whereby every surgeon performing gold eyelid implantation could have easy and quick access to the implant. Furthermore, we aimed to develop a means of creating an implant of the exact weight required for complete eyelid closure.
Study design and setting:
A prospective study was performed from 1997 to 2005 in a tertiary research hospital, involving 50 subjects requiring gold upper eyelid implantation and using the technique in question.
Only patients with a minimum follow up of one year were included in the study group. Symptoms improved in 96 per cent of subjects, who were able to dispense with eyedrops and eye ointments. Visual acuity improved in 92 per cent of patients. There were two extrusions amongst the early cases.
Conclusion and significance:
Customised gold eyelid implantation offers an alternative in regions where commercial implants are not easily obtained.
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