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Algae like diatoms are widely studied as a means to remediate anthropogenically contaminated sites. In the present study, CL (cathodoluminescence) and EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray) spectroscopy in an SEM (scanning electron microscope) were optimized for the detection of Eu(III) sorbed on diatom biosilica. The required stability of biosilica under a focused electron beam was extensively investigated. Using experimentally determined data of thermal properties, the temperature increase within biosilica exposed to an electron beam was simulated by finite element calculations based on results from Monte Carlo simulations of electron scattering. Complementary thermogravimetric studies substantiated a chemical stability of biosilica in a wide temperature range, confirming its suitability for long-lasting SEM investigations. In subsequent EDX measurements, characteristic Eu lines were detected. Eu was found to preferentially accumulate and aggregate on silica fragments. CL spectra were obtained for the Eu(III) reference material, EuCl3. For Eu-loaded biosilica, even parts without detectable Eu signal in the EDX spectra show significant Eu(III) signals in the CL spectra. This highlights the sensitivity of CL in studying f-element sorption. CL data showed that Eu(III) was distributed on the entire surface. In conclusion, this work demonstrates the merit of CL and EDX methods for sorption studies on biogenic materials.
The following position statement from the Union of the European Phoniatricians, updated on 25th May 2020 (superseding the previous statement issued on 21st April 2020), contains a series of recommendations for phoniatricians and ENT surgeons who provide and/or run voice, swallowing, speech and language, or paediatric audiology services.
This material specifically aims to inform clinical practices in countries where clinics and operating theatres are reopening for elective work. It endeavours to present a current European view in relation to common procedures, many of which fall under the aegis of aerosol generating procedures.
As evidence continues to build, some of the recommended practices will undoubtedly evolve, but it is hoped that the updated position statement will offer clinicians precepts on safe clinical practice.
Social implications and long-term consequences of mental disorders regarding sick days at work, unemployment rates and early retirement are substantial. There is no clear understanding
1) whether and which social psychiatric strategies of vocational rehabilitation and
2) whether and how atypical antipsychotics are successful in supporting vocational rehabilitation in schizophrenia.
Primary objective was to demonstrate the enhanced ability of schizophrenic patients to be successfully in employment after attending specific “job-consulting” programs. Secondary objective was to demonstrate positive effects of ziprasidone and risperidone on work-related functions.
Aim of the study was to enlighten the complex relationship between working performance of schizophrenic patients, their social psychiatric and medical treatment, and their cognitive capabilities in a first step.
The study was conducted in inpatients, day-clinic- or outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia, paranoid type (ICD 10: F20.0). All patients received regular pharmacological treatment and intense cognitive training, additionally one group completed specific “job-consulting” programs. ANT, CPT, WCST, PANSS and WBN were performed after 3, 6, 12 and 24 months.
At present eighteen schizophrenic patients (6 female and 12 male, mean age: 33.6 years) have been included in the study. Analyzing the data after 3 months the results are:
1) specific “job-consulting” programs increase the probability of employment
2) both, ziprasidone and risperidone, exert positive and comparable effects in work-related functions,
3) the better the cognitive capability the better the vocational outcome.
Specific “job-consulting” programs constitute a clinically relevant therapeutic option in vocational rehabilitation of schizophrenic patients.
We introduce the Galaxy IFU Spectroscopy Tool (GIST), a convenient, all-in-one and multi-purpose tool for the analysis and visualisation of already reduced (integral-field) spectroscopic data. In particular, the pipeline performs all steps from read-in and preparation of data to its scientific analysis and visualisation in publication-quality plots. The code measures stellar kinematics and non-parametric star formation histories using the pPXF routine (Cappellari & Emsellem 2004; Cappellari 2017), performs an emission-line analysis with the GandALF procedure (Sarzi et al. 2006; Falcón-Barroso et al. 2006), and determines absorption line-strength indices and their corresponding single stellar population equivalent population properties (Kuntschner et al.2006; Martín-Navarro et al. 2018). The dedicated visualisation routine Mapviewer facilitates the access of all data products in a sophisticated graphical user interface with fully interactive plots.
The outermost “crust” and an underlying, compositionally distinct, and denser layer, the “mantle,” constitute the silicate portion of a terrestrial planet. The “lithosphere” is the planet’s high-strength outer shell. The crust records the history of shallow magmatism, which along with temporal changes in lithospheric thickness, provides information on a planet’s thermal evolution. We focus on the basic structure and mechanics of Mercury’s crust and lithosphere as determined primarily from gravity and topography data acquired by the MESSENGER mission. We first describe these datasets: how they were acquired, how the data are represented on a sphere, and the limitations of the data imparted by MESSENGER’s highly eccentric orbit. We review different crustal thickness models obtained by parsing the observed gravity signal into contributions from topography, relief on the crust–mantle boundary, and density anomalies that drive viscous flow in the mantle. Estimates of lithospheric thickness from gravity–topography analyses are at odds with predictions from thermal models, thus challenging our understanding of Mercury’s geodynamics. We show that, like those of the Moon, Mercury's ellipsoidal shape and geoid are far from hydrostatic equilibrium, possibly the result of Mercury's peculiar surface temperature distribution and associated buoyancy anomalies and thermoelastic stresses in the interior.
Pollen and macrofossils are an integral part of palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Here we discuss palaeobotanical evidence for vegetation and climate changes since the origins of modern biomes in southern Africa during the Miocene, and through the Pleistocene and Holocene. Examples of palaeobotanical records are provided from different biomes in different climate zones across southern Africa. These examples show that different biomes responded in different ways to climate changes throughout the Neogene and Quaternary, and that these environmental changes are also recorded in different ways though pollen, charcoal and macrofossils. In the latter part of the record, biome composition also reflects the impact of human activity.
Persistent katabatic winds form widely distributed localized areas of near-zero net surface accumulation on the East Antarctic ice sheet (EAIS) plateau. These areas have been called 'glaze' surfaces due to their polished appearance. They are typically 2-200 km2 in area and are found on leeward slopes of ice-sheet undulations and megadunes. Adjacent, leeward high-accumulation regions (isolated dunes) are generally smaller and do not compensate for the local low in surface mass balance (SMB). We use a combination of satellite remote sensing and field-gathered datasets to map the extent of wind glaze in the EAIS above 1500 m elevation. Mapping criteria are derived from distinctive surface and subsurface characteristics of glaze areas resulting from many years of intense annual temperature cycling without significant burial. Our results show that 11.2 ± 1.7%, or 950 ± 143 × 103km2, of the EAIS above 1500 m is wind glaze. Studies of SMB interpolate values across glaze regions, leading to overestimates of net mass input. Using our derived wind-glaze extent, we estimate this excess in three recent models of Antarctic SMB at 46-82 Gt. The lowest-input model appears to best match the mean in regions of extensive wind glaze.
To examine the effects of animal-source foods on toddler growth.
A 5-month comparison feeding intervention study with one of three millet-based porridges randomized to eighteen feeding stations serving 303 children aged 11–40 months. Feeding stations served plain millet porridge (Plain group), porridge with milk (Milk group) or porridge with beef (Meat group). Anthropometry, morbidity and food intake were measured at baseline and regular intervals. Longitudinal mixed models were used to analyse growth.
Two hundred and seventy-four children were included in final analyses.
Linear growth was significantly greater for the Milk group than the Meat group (P = 0·0025). Slope of growth of mid-arm muscle area of the Plain group was significantly greater than in the Meat group (P = 0·0046), while the Milk group's mid-upper arm circumference growth rate was significantly greater than the Meat group's (P = 0·0418). The Milk and Plain groups’ measures did not differ.
Milk and meat porridges did not have a significantly greater effect on growth than plain porridge in this undernourished population. Linear growth was influenced by more than energy intakes, as the Plain group's total body weight-adjusted energy intakes were significantly greater than the Meat group's, although linear growth did not differ. Energy intakes may be more important for growth in arm muscle. The diverse age distribution in the study makes interpretation difficult. A longer study period, larger sample size and more focused age group would improve clarity of the results.
To determine whether drinking water contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant E. coli is associated with the carriage of resistant E. coli, selected households sending water samples to Ontario and Alberta laboratories in 2005–2006 were asked to participate in a cross-sectional study. Household members aged ⩾12 years were asked to complete a questionnaire and to submit a rectal swab. In 878 individuals, 41% carried a resistant strain of E. coli and 28% carried a multidrug-resistant strain. The risk of carriage of resistant E. coli was 1·26 times higher for users of water contaminated with resistant E. coli. Other risk factors included international travel [prevalence ratio (PR) 1·33], having a child in nappies (PR 1·33), being male (PR 1·33), and frequent handling of raw red meats (PR 1·10). Protecting private water sources (e.g. by improving systems to test and treat them) may help slow the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli.
New excavations in ravines at Ounjougou in Mali have brought to light a lithic and ceramic assemblage that dates from before 9400 cal BC. The authors show that this first use of pottery coincides with a warm wet period in the Sahara. As in East Asia, where very early ceramics are also known, the pottery and small bifacial arrowheads were the components of a new subsistence strategy exploiting an ecology associated with abundant wild grasses. In Africa, however, the seeds were probably boiled (then as now) rather than made into bread.
We present the adaptive optics assisted, near-infrared VLTI instrument GRAVITY for precision narrow-angle astrometry and interferometric phase referenced imaging of faint objects. With its two fibers per telescope beam, its internal wavefront sensors and fringe tracker, and a novel metrology concept, GRAVITY will not only push the sensitivity far beyond what is offered today, but will also advance the astrometric accuracy for UTs to 10 μas. GRAVITY is designed to work with four telescopes, thus providing phase referenced imaging and astrometry for 6 baselines simultaneously. Its unique capabilities and sensitivity will open a new window for the observation of a wide range of objects, and — amongst others — will allow the study of motion within a few times the event horizon size of the Galactic Center black hole.
The hydration of controlled tricalcium and dicalcium silicate mixtures was investigated using inelastic neutron scattering. The amount of Ca(OH)2 produced by each mixture was quantified based on the vibrational mode at approximately 41 meV. The results of compressive strength testing correlate with the amount of Ca(OH)2 produced and with previous results from quasielastic neutron scattering. These results establish a link between hydration mechanics and the evolution of hydration products leading to desirable properties, such as strength.
For the homoepitaxial growth of ZnO it is inevitable to obtain a regular crystalline single crystal surface prior to growth. Commercially available, hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals show amorphous surfaces due to mechanical cutting and polishing.
Here we present the results of a thermal treatment on these ZnO single crystals. After annealing, a regular crystalline oxygen terminated surface can be obtained. Changes in surface roughness, residual defect concentration and electrical properties can be shown. The bulk crystallinity though was not affected.
ZnO and ZnO/EosinY hybrid materials were electrodeposited from aqueous zinc salt solutions on (0001) GaN and on (0001) ZnO. Crystalline ZnO was deposited as proven by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The intensity pattern for ZnO/EosinY showed a preferential orientation with the c- plane of ZnO parallel to GaN (0001) or ZnO (0001). XRD rocking curves with FWHM=0.25° indicated a high level of in-plane orientation of the deposited ZnO crystalline domains. The peak position of (0002) ZnO was shifted by 2Θ=1.3°. This difference and the corresponding simultaneous shift of (0004) ZnO were explained by a lattice expansion by 3.6 % in the c- direction. This clearly indicated the strong influence of the Eosin Y molecules adsorbed during the electrodeposition of ZnO. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the formation of domains with different crystal sizes pointing at a varying density of nucleation sites on the substrate.