We present a new class of bioinspired nanomaterials that are stabilized by a combination of covalent and hydrogen bonds. Prior work by others has shown that cyclic peptides can self-assemble to form supramolecular assemblies through backbone-backbone hydrogen bonding. To improve upon this molecular architecture, we develop a synthesis route to polymerize cyclic peptides and form a linear polymer chain that can transition between a rigid nanorod and an unfolded conformation. For a cyclic peptide polymer containing amine-terminated side chains on each ring, we demonstrate self-assembly can be triggered in aqueous solutions by varying the pH. We measure the elastic modulus of the rigid nanorods to be ca. 50 GPa, which is comparable to our molecular dynamics (MD) prediction (ca. 64 GPa). Our results highlight the uniqueness of our molecular architecture, namely their exemplary toughness (up to 3 GJ m-3), in comparison to other cyclic peptide-based assemblies. Finally, we demonstrate amphiphilic cyclic β-peptides are capable of inhibiting the growth of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.