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The Varian Trilogy linear accelerator’s multi-leaf collimator moves on a carriage with a maximum leaf span of 15 cm. The traditional open and limited X-jaw technique of volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) yields a relatively compromised dose distribution within the planning target volume (PTV) region. This study aimed to determine whether the split X-jaw planning technique for VMAT improves plan quality regarding target dose coverage and organs at risk (OAR) sparing for PTVs that require a field size of more than 15 cm in the X-jaw direction in prostate cancer patients.
Computed tomography data sets from 15 patients with prostate cancer were enrolled in the study. Only the PTVs requiring a field size larger than 18 cm in the X-jaw position were considered, and a dose of 4500 cGy in 25 fractions was prescribed. For each case, three separate treatment plans were generated: open, limited and split X-jaw planning techniques with similar planning objectives
The split X-jaw technique resulted in statistically significant superior coverage of PTV when compared with the open (P < 0·0001) and limited methods (P < 0·001). The split technique delivered a lower dose to the OARs, although statistical significance could not be achieved. D2% (cGy) was lowest for the PTV in the split technique (4684·8 ± 18·16) and highest for the open technique (4710 ± 18·75), P < 0·001.
The x-split jaw technique can replace the traditional open X-jaw practice of VMAT for PTVs requiring an X-jaw width of more than 15 cm in the Varian linear accelerator.
This study aims to compare the dosimetric parameters among four different external beam radiotherapy techniques used for the treatment of retinoblastoma.
Materials and methods:
Computed tomography (CT) sets of five retinoblastoma patients who required radiotherapy to one globe were included. Four different plans were generated for each patient using three dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and VMAT using flattening filter free (VMAT-FFF) beam techniques. Plans were compared for target coverage and organs at risk (OARs) sparing.
The target coverage of planning target volume (PTV) for all the four modalities were clinically acceptable with a V95 of 95 ± 0%, 97·6 ± 1·87%, 99·3 ± 0·5% and 99·17 ± 0·45% for 3DCRT, IMRT, VMAT and VMAT-FFF respectively. The VMAT and IMRT plans had better target coverage than the 3DCRT plans (p = 0·001 and p = 0·07 respectively). IMRT and VMAT plans were also found superior to 3DCRT plans in terms of OAR sparing like brainstem, optic chiasm, brain (p < 0·05). VMAT delivered significantly lower dose to the brainstem and contralateral optic nerve in comparison to IMRT. Use of VMAT-FFF beams did not show any benefit over VMAT in target coverage and OAR sparing.
VMAT should be preferred over 3DCRT and IMRT for treatment of retinoblastoma owing to better target coverage and less dose to most of the OARs. However, IMRT and VMAT should be used with caution because of the increased low dose volumes to the OARs like contralateral lens and eyeball.
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