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This study examined the performance of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)(P3HT)- and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)-based organic solar cells (OSCs) with a pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) cathode interfacial layer between the active layer and cathode. The effect of inserting the cathode interfacial layer with different thicknesses was investigated. For the OSC samples with a 0.5 nm thick PMDA layer, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) was approximately 2.77% under 100 mW/cm2 (AM1.5) simulated illumination. It was suggested that the PMDA cathode interfacial layer acts as an exciton blocking layer, leading to an enhancement of the OSC performance.
The dielectric constants and dielectric losses of ZrTiO4 thin films deposited by DC magnetron reactive sputtering were investigated. The paraelectric properties were measured in the 100kHz range and compared with an equivalent circuit model. As the deposition temperature increased (up to 600°C), the dielectric losses (tanσ) decreased (down to 0.017±0.007), while the dielectric constants (ε) were in the range of 35±7. Post annealing at 800°C in oxygen for 2h reduced tanσ down to 0.005±0.001, higher than those of well-sintered bulk ZrTiO4.
This paper deals with a novel structure of polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) solar cell for terrestrial applications. Grain boundary (GB) in poly-Si degrades a conversion efficiency of poly-Si solar cell. To reduce the GB side-effect, we investigated various parameters such as the preferential GB etch, etchtime, ITO electrode, heat treatment, and emitter layer effect. Among various preferential etchants such as Sirtl, Yang, Secco, and Schimmel, a Schimmel etchant illustrated an excellent preferential etching property. We observed a 10μm deep trench along grain boundaries and randomly textured grain surface with pyramid structure. We used rf magnetron sputter grown tin doped indium oxide (ITO) film as a top contact metal. ITO films showed a resistivity of 1.14 ×10-4 Ω-cm and transmittance of 90.5% for the wavelength of 594 nm. ITO films served as a top electrode as well as an effective AR coating layer. ITO film properties were strongly influenced by the preparation temperatures. Substrate temperature of 400oC gave the highest conversion efficiency of poly-Si solar cell. With well-fabricated poly-Si solar cells, we were able to achieve conversion efficiency as high as 16% at the input power of 20 mW/cm2.
In this paper we investigated a feasibility of Y2O3 films as a buffer layer of MFIS (metal ferroelectric insulator semiconductor) type capacitor. Buffer layers were prepared by two-step process of a low temperature film growth and subsequent RTA treatment. Investigated parameters are given as substrate temperature, O2 partial pressure, post-annealing temperature, and suppression method of interfacial SiO2layer generation. By employing an ultra thin Y pre-metal layer, unwanted SiO2 layer generation was successfully suppressed at an interface between the buffer layer and Si substrate. By using two-step process, we improved the leakage current density of Y2O3 films by 2 orders and the Dit as low as 8.72×1010 cm−2eV−1. For a substrate temperature above 400°C and O2 partial pressure of 20%, we observed cubic Y2O3 phase domination in XRD spectra. We achieved 1.75% lattice mismatch between Y2O3 film and silicon substrate. Y2O3 buffer layer for a single transistor FRAM exhibited optimal properties when it was grown at 400°C with 20% O2 partial pressure then RTA treatment at 900°C in oxygen ambient.
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