Sucrose is more lipogenic than starch, and the extreme ingestion of sucrose induces adiposity and obesity. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) leaf extract (ELE) on adiposity due to dietary sucrose in rats. In addition, in this study, the effect of ELE on intestinal fructose absorption was also examined. Rats were fed a high-sucrose diet (75 % in calorie base) with or without ELE (10 g/kg diet) for 5 weeks. Body weight was lower in the rats receiving ELE than in the controls (342 (sd 37·9) v. 392 (sd 26·0) g (n 7); P<0·05). Furthermore, ELE resulted in decreases in the triacylglycerol concentrations in the plasma (1·44 (sd 0·448) v. 2·79 (sd 0·677) mmol/l (n 7); P<0·05) and liver (19·1 (sd 5·07) v. 44·1 (sd 16·28) μmol/g (n 7); P<0·05). In contrast, ELE did not show any significant effects in the rats fed a starch diet. When rats were orally given ELE 10 min before fructose administration, the intestinal fructose absorption, which was examined by measuring the elevated concentration of fructose in the portal vein at 30 min after the fructose administration, was significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, in rats fed a high-fructose diet, the plasma and hepatic triacylglycerol concentrations were significantly decreased by ELE. These results indicate that ELE, which inhibits the intestinal fructose absorption, can suppress adiposity in rats that ingest large amounts of sucrose or fructose.