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This study aimed to investigate the influences of age, education, and gender on the two total scores (TS-I and TS-II) of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological assessment battery (CERAD-NP) and to provide normative information based on an analysis for a large number of elderly persons with a wide range of educational levels.
In the study, 1,987 community-dwelling healthy volunteers (620 males and 1,367 females; 50–90 years of age; and zero to 25 years of education) were included. People with serious neurological, medical, and psychiatric disorders (including dementia) were excluded. All participants underwent the CERAD-NP assessment. TS-I was generated by summing raw scores from the CERAD-NP subtests, excluding Mini-Mental State Examination and Constructional Praxis (CP) recall subtests. TS-II was calculated by adding CP recall score to TS-I.
Both TS-I and TS-II were significantly influenced by demographic variables. Education accounted for the greatest proportion of score variance. Interaction effect between age and gender was found. Based on the results obtained, normative data of the CERAD-NP total scores were stratified by age (six overlapping tables), education (four strata), and gender.
The normative information will be very useful for better interpretation of the CERAD-NP total scores in various clinical and research settings and for comparing individuals’ performance of the battery across countries.
Using magnetic resonance imaging-based planimetry, we measured cortical and cerebral (cortical and ventricular) atrophy in 26 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (age, 72.2 ± 7.0) according to NINCDS-ADRDA criteria and 22 control subjects (age, 71.5 ± 5.4). AD patients exhibited greater cerebral atrophy (p < .05) than control subjects. Cerebral atrophy was significantly correlated with age (r = .72, p < .0005) in healthy volunteers but not in AD patients. In AD patients, age of onset was negatively correlated with the estimated rate of disease-attributed cerebral degeneration ([observed atrophy - atrophy in normal aging calculated from the regression equation derived from the control group]/[duration of illness]) (r = −.54, p < .005). Multiple regression with interaction analysis demonstrated that age, age of onset, and their interaction successfully explained cerebral (R2 = .51, p < .05) and cortical (R2 = .64, p < .05) atrophy in patients with probable AD. Age of onset may be a strong predictor of the rate of cerebral degeneration in AD, and our results suggest that controlling age and the age of onset is essential in the quantitative study of AD.
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