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We investigated the effects of botulinum toxin on gait in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with foot dystonia. Six patients underwent onabotulinum toxin A injection and were assessed by Burke–Fahn–Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS), visual analog scale (VAS) of pain, Timed Up and Go (TUG), Berg Balance Test (BBT), and 3D gait analysis at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months. BFMDRS (p = 0.002), VAS (p = 0.024), TUG (p = 0.028), and BBT (p = 0.034) were improved. Foot pressures at Toe 1 (p = 0.028) and Midfoot (p = 0.018) were reduced, indicating botulinum toxin’s effects in alleviating the dystonia severity and pain and improving foot pressures during walking in PD.
The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of either hearing, vision or dual sensory impairment on depressive symptoms and to identify subgroups that are vulnerable and significantly affected.
Data from the 2006–2014 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) were used and a total of 5832 individuals were included in this study. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D10) scale. Sensory impairment was assessed according to the levels of self-reported hearing or vision, which were categorised as either good (excellent, very good or good) or poor (fair or poor). The changes in hearing or vision from records of previous survey were investigated. Changes from good to poor, which indicates new onset, were defined as hearing impairment or vision impairment. Interactions of changes in hearing and vision were considered in the analysis. Dual sensory impairment was indicated when hearing impairment and vision impairment both developed at the same time. Demographic, socioeconomic and health-related factors were considered as potential confounders and were adjusted for in the generalised estimating equation model.
Individuals with hearing impairment demonstrated significantly more severe depressive symptoms [β = 0.434, standard errors (s.e.) = 0.097, p < 0.001] than those who had good hearing. Those with vision impairment also showed significantly elevated depressive symptoms (β = 0.253, s.e. = 0.058, p < 0.001) than those with good vision. When the interactions between hearing and vision were considered, participants with dual sensory impairment showed significantly more severe depressive symptoms (β = 0.768, s.e. = 0.197, p < 0.001) than those with good hearing and vision. The effect of a single and dual sensory impairment on depressive symptoms was significant in both sexes and across age groups, except for vision impairment in male participants.
Hearing, vision and dual sensory impairment are significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Our results suggest that treatment or rehabilitation of either hearing or vision impairment would help prevent depression.
To identify clinical factors that can explain the differences in treatment outcome, and examine the value of human papillomavirus infection as a prognostic biomarker in stage IVa tonsillar carcinomas.
Fifty-nine patients with tonsillar carcinoma classified as stage IVa were retrospectively analysed for survival outcomes according to various clinical factors. Human papillomavirus infection was evaluated using a human papillomavirus DNA chip test and immunohistochemical staining for p16 and p53.
Lower disease-free survival rates were associated with increasing local invasiveness and nodal status. Although human papillomavirus positivity and p16 expression was more common in locally advanced tonsillar carcinomas with advanced nodal status, the overall survival rate was better for patients with human papillomavirus positive, p16-positive tumours.
The disease-free survival rate may differ according to local tumour invasiveness and nodal status, even for stage IVa tonsillar cancers. Human papillomavirus infection may be a useful biomarker for predicting treatment outcomes for stage VIa tumours.
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of post-operative voice therapy after phonomicrosurgery for vocal polyp removal.
The study retrospectively enrolled 55 consecutive patients who had undergone voice therapy after phonomicrosurgery for vocal polyp removal occurring between June 2010 and June 2011. A historical group of 63 similar patients not receiving voice therapy was used as an external control. We compared voice analysis parameters and Voice Handicap Index scores for the two groups.
Most objective and subjective voice outcome parameters were significantly improved after surgical treatment. Although the study and control groups showed no significant difference regarding objective parameters (using acoustic and aerodynamic analysis) or the subjective parameters assessed using the grade-roughness-breathiness-asthenia-strain scale, the study group had significantly better final Voice Handicap Index scores.
Following surgery for vocal polyps, post-operative voice therapy can improve patients' vocal discomfort, emotional responses and everyday self-perception.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO), which will be launched onboard the
Lomonosov spacecraft, contains two crucial instruments: UFFO Burst
Alert & Trigger Telescope (UBAT) for detection and localization of Gamma-Ray Bursts
(GRBs) and the fast-response Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) designed for the observation
of the prompt optical/UV counterparts. Here we discuss the in-space calibrations of the
UBAT detector and SMT telescope. After the launch, the observations of the standard X-ray
sources such as pulsar in Crab nebula will provide data for necessary calibrations of
UBAT. Several standard stars will be used for the photometric calibration of SMT. The
celestial X-ray sources, e.g. X-ray binaries with bright optical sources
in their close angular vicinity will serve for the cross-calibration of UBAT and SMT.
The UFFO (Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory) is a GRB detector on board the Lomonosov
satellite, to be launched in 2013. The GRB trigger is provided by an X-ray detector,
called UBAT (UFFO Burst Alarm & Trigger Telescope), which detects X-rays from the GRB
and then triggers to determine the direction of the GRB and then alerts the Slewing Mirror
Telescope (SMT) to turn in the direction of the GRB and record the optical photon fluxes.
This report details the calibration of the two components: the MAPMTs and the YSO crystals
and simulations of the UBAT. The results shows that this design can observe a GRB within a
field of view of ±35° and can trigger in a time scale as short as 0.2 – 1.0 s
after the appearance of a GRB X-ray spike.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is a space mission to detect the early moments of an explosion from Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), thus enhancing our understanding of the GRB mechanism. It consists of the UFFO Burst & Trigger telescope (UBAT) for the recognition of GRB positions using hard X-ray from GRBs. It also contains the Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) for the fast detection of UV-optical photons from GRBs. It is designed to begin the UV-optical observations in less than a few seconds after the trigger. The UBAT is based on a coded-mask X-ray camera with a wide field of view (FOV) and is composed of the coded mask, a hopper and a detector module. The SMT has a fast rotatable mirror which allows a fast UV-optical detection after the trigger. The telescope is a modified Ritchey-Chrétien telescope with the aperture size of 10 cm diameter, and an image intensifier readout by CCD. The UFFO pathfinder is scheduled to launch into orbit on 2012 June by the Lomonosov spacecraft. It is a scaled-down version of UFFO in order to make the first systematic study of early UV/optical light curves, including the rise phase of GRBs. We expect UBAT to trigger ~44 GRBs/yr and expect SMT to detect ~10 GRBs/yr.
An organic/inorganic hybrid-type nonvolatile memory TFT was proposed as a core device for the future flexible electronics. The structural feature of this memory TFT was that a ferroelectric copolymer and an oxide semiconductor layers were employed as a gate insulator and an active channel, respectively. The memory TFT with the structure of Au/poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/Al2O3/ZnO/Ti/Au/Ti/poly(ethylene naphthalate) could be successfully fabricated at the process temperature of below 150°C. It was confirmed that the TFT well operated as a memory device even under the bending situations.
We describe a near perfect broad band absorber based on a laterally nanostructured multilayer material. We present calculations of the structure that demonstrates over 99% absorption of the 500 K black body spectrum. We also show the ability to manufacture an anti-reflective layer using a nanostructured metamaterial which allows us to tailor the index of refraction using effective medium theory. The absorber can be adapted for use in any frequency range and any source type. These materials may have applications in energy harvesting and scattered light control.
SiO2 thin films were prepared on p-type Si (100) substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using SiH2Cl2 and O3(1.5 at.%)/O2 as precursors at 300. The growth rate of the deposited films increased linearly with increasing amount of simultaneous SiH2Cl2 and O3 exposures, and was saturated at about 0.35 nm/cycle with the reactant exposures of more than 3.6×109L. A larger amount of O3/O2 than that of SiH2Cl2 was required to obtain a saturated deposition reaction. The composition of the deposited film also varied with O3/O2 exposure at a fixed SiH2Cl2 exposure. The Si/O ratio gradually decreased to 0.5 with increasing amount of O3/O2 exposure. Finally, we also compared the physical and electrical characteristics of the ALD films with those of the films deposited by conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods. In spite of low process temperature, the SiO2 film prepared by the ALD method was in wet etch rate, surface roughness, leakage current and breakdown voltage superior to that by other several CVD methods.
Incomplete recrystallized junction defects of self-aligned, excimer laser annealed polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin film transistor (TFT) was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). TEM observation and simulation result verify that the laser irradiation intensity decreased remarkably at the junction due to diffraction of laser beam at gate electrode edge. We proposed oblique-incidence excimer laser annealing method and successfully eliminated the residual junction defects.
Vertically aligned carbon nanorods and multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were synthesized by electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECR-CVD) on Ni- coated glass substrates with the RF-self biasing of –100 and –200 V, respectively. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy indicated that the distance between adjacent graphene layers of carbon nanorods is much larger than that of well-graphitized MWNTs. In electron-energy-loss spectra, the energy of π+σ plasmon peak for the carbon nanorod shifts towards lower value of 23.8 eV, by comparison with the well-graphitized MWNT at 25.5 eV. In addition, the π palsmon peak at 6 eV is clearly defined for the well-graphitized MWNT, but not seen for the carbon nanorod. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy also showed that the delocalization of π electrons gets more pronounced with the structural evolvement from the carbon nanorod to the well-graphitized MWNT. Therefore, it is suggested that ionic bombardment can provide sufficient internal energy for dehydrogenation from hydrocarbon molecules, and thus, well-graphitized MWNTs could be grown even at low temperatures.
A new structure of triode type field emission displays based on single-walled carbon nanotube emitters is demonstrated. In this structure, gate electrodes are situated under cathode electrodes with an in-between insulating layer, so called under-gate type triode. Electron emission from the carbon nanotube emitters is modulated by changing gate voltages. A threshold voltage is approximately 70 V at the anode bias of 275 V.
We have fabricated and characterized the lateral electron transport through InAs quantum dots with double barrier system. Aluminum metal electrodes with the inter-electrode spacing of 30 nm have been deposited on an InAs self-assembled quantum dot wafer to form the planar type quantum dot devices. Current peak structure and negative differential resistance effects are observed above 77 K in current-voltage characteristics. These results are interpreted as due to 3D-0D resonant tunneling through the single quantum dot positioned in between the electrodes.
We present performance results of 4-inch full-color field emission display (FED) devices which are constructed by using Spindt type arrays with 80,000,000 Mo-metal tips, spacers, uniquely-developed low voltage color phosphors. Spindt type microtips with less than 1.1 urn in hole size are fabricated using a total internal reflection (TIR) holographic lithograpy method. Each color phosphor is electrophoretically deposited on the ITO line. The spacer which is screen-printed is characterized by a 3-dimentional surface analysis system. Electron emission pattern and luminance test of each pixel without cross talk are analyzed under different gate voltages. In addition, the total pressure and residual gas distributions inside the panel are investigated at various gap sizes between the cathode and anode plates.
We have studied the effect of RF power on the properties of Si thin films prepared by a conventional plasma and remote plasma(RP)- CVD. The structure of the Si film changes from amorphous to crystalline with increasing RF power in RP-CVD. However, the structure of Si film deposited by P-CVD remains amorphous with increasing RF power. The relaxation of Si atoms by means of chemical annealing of He metastable atoms gives rise to the formation of macrocrystalline structure at the high RF powers.
The experimental results regarding to the effects of ultraviolet (UV) light illumination on the characteristics of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film transistors (TFT's) have been presented. The device parameters of a-Si:H TFT, such as threshold voltage, field-effect mobility, and subthreshold slope, have been degraded by electrical stress and visible light illumination, but substantially improved by UV radiation. This may be attributed to an annealing effect on the dangling-bond defects, involving a number of phonons generated by absorption of high energy UV photons in the a-Si:H TFT channel. It has been also observed that the off-current of a-Si:H TFT decreases remarkably while the on-current changes very little. From the experimental results, we report that the improved on/off current ratio of a-Si:H TFT may be achieved by UV radiation.
We presents a new model for the series resistance of an amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin film transistor (TFT) with an inverted-staggered configuration, considering the current spreading under the source and the drain contacts as well as the space charge limited current. The calculated results of our model have been in good agreements with the measured data over a wide range of applied voltage, gate-to-source and gate-to-drain overlap length, channel length, and operating temperature. Our model shows that the relative contribution of the series resistances to the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the a-Si TFT in the linear regime is more significant at low drain and high gate voltages, for short channel and small overlap length, and at low operating temperature, which has been verified successfully by the experimental measurements.
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