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Nurses and paramedics by being the frontline workers of the health-care profession need to be equipped with the relevant knowledge, skills, and protective gears against different forms of infection, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although the governments and concerned stakeholders have provided personal protective equipment (PPE), training and information to protect the health-care professionals; however, until now the scientific literature has virtually not reported the impact of PPE availability, training, and practices on the COVID-19 sero-prevalence among the nurses and paramedics. This study aimed to assess the impact of PPE availability, training, and practices on COVID-19 sero-prevalence among nurses and paramedics in teaching hospitals of Peshawar, Pakistan.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a total of 133 nurses and paramedics as subjects of the study.
A univariate analysis was done for 4 variables. The findings indicate that the health-care professionals (nurses and paramedics) who have received PPE on time at the start of COVID-19 emergence have fewer chances of contracting the COVID-19 infection (odds ratio = 0.96); while the odds for PPE supplies was 0.73, and the odds of hand hygiene training was 0.95.
The study concluded that the availability of the PPE, COVID-19–related training, and compliance with World Health Organization recommended practices against COVID-19 were instrumental in protection against the infection and its spread.
The aim of this study was to analyze retrospectively the earthquake-induced injuries caused by the October 2015 Hindu Kush earthquake in Pakistan. This is the first population-based study to assess epidemiologically earthquake-induced injuries in the Hindu Kush region, one of the world’s most mountainous and seismically active regions. Unfortunately, only limited studies have investigated the earthquake-induced injuries and deaths in the region epidemiologically.
The 5 worst affected districts were selected according to the highest number of deaths and injuries recorded. A total of 1,790 injuries and 232 deaths were reported after the 2015 earthquake. In our study area, 391 persons were recorded and verified to have been injured as a result of the earthquake. We attempted to investigate all of the 391 injured people, but the final study looked at 346 subjects because the remaining 45 subjects could not be traced because of the non-availability of their complete records and their refusal to participate in the study.
Using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision (ICD 10), we found that the highest number – 20.23% (70 of 346) – of injuries in the earthquake fall in the class of “Injuries to an unspecified part of trunk, limb, or body region (T08-T14).” The class of “Injuries to knee and lower leg (S80-S89),” which count 15.61% (54 out of 346), followed it, and “Injuries involving multiple body regions (T00-T07)” were making 14.74% of total injuries (51 out of 346).
In times of natural disasters like earthquakes, collecting and analyzing real-time data can be challenging. Therefore, a retrospective data analysis of deaths and injuries induced by the earthquake is of high importance. Studies in these emerging domains will be crucial to initiate health policy debates and to prevent and mitigate future injuries and deaths. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;13:732–739).
To present the evaluation of a large-scale quantitative respirator-fit testing program.
Concurrent questionnaire survey of fit testers and test subjects.
Ambulatory care, home nursing care, and acute care hospitals across South Australia.
Quantitative facial-fit testing was performed with TSI PortaCount instruments for healthcare workers (HCWs) who wore 5 different models of a disposable P2 (N95-equivalent) respirator. The questionnaire included questions about the HCWs age, sex, race, occupational category, main area of work, smoking status, facial characteristics, prior training and experience in use of respiratory masks, and number of attempts to obtain a respirator fit.
A total of 6,160 HCWs were successfully fitted during the period from January through July 2007. Of the 4,472 HCWs who responded to the questionnaire and were successfully fitted, 3,707 (82.9%) were successfully fitted with the first tested respirator, 551 (12.3%) required testing with a second model, and 214 (4.8%) required 3 or more tests. We noted an increased pass rate on the first attempt over time. Asians (excluding those from South and Central Asia) had the highest failure rate (16.3% [45 of 276 Asian HCWs were unsuccessfully fitted]), and whites had the lowest (9.8% [426 of 4,338 white HCWs]). Race was highly correlated with facial shape. Among occupational groups, doctors had the highest failure rate (13.4% [81 of 604 doctors]), but they also had the highest proportion of Asians. Prior education and/or training in respirator use were not associated with a higher pass rate.
Certain facial characteristics were associated with higher or lower pass rates with regard to fit testing, and fit testers were able to select a suitable respirator on the basis of a visual assessment in the majority of cases. For the fit tester, training and experience were important factors; however, for the HCW being fitted, prior experience in respirator use was not an important factor.
South Africa is addressing critical questions of intergovernmental fiscal relations as it undertakes the process of abolishing apartheid and rede- fining its system of governance. In the process, fundamental changes are being implemented in the structure of government: the constitution has been radically redesigned; new tiers of government are being created; decentralization has been initiated; electoral accountability has been extended to all irrespective of race; and, finally, the rapid delivery of basic public goods for the non-white community has commenced.
This chapter discusses how the intergovernmental fiscal system is being radically altered to support these fundamental changes. In particular, it focuses on the restructuring of the provinces and the metropolitan areas of South Africa. The success and sustainability of the reform of the intergovernmental system will depend critically on the coordination of the change process for these two tiers of government. The first section of this chapter sets the stage by describing how apartheid laws influenced the intergovernmental fiscal system in South Africa. The following section of this chapter provides a discussion of how the new provinces have been constituted. A third section focuses on the structure of urban governance for the large cities of South Africa. In a final section, there is analysis of some of the tensions inherent in the changes being undertaken.
Initial conditions: the consequences of apartheid
South Africa's policies of racial separation created dualism in intergovernmental fiscal relations, as in social and economic life.
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