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Since 1994, the KHNP has developed a vitrification technology to treat the LILW generated from Korean nuclear power plant. To vitrify the LILW including combustible Dry Active Waste (DAW) and Ion Exchange Resin (IER) containing Zeolite, two borosilicate glasses are formulated. One of the formulated glass, DG2, is for the DAW vitrification solely and the other one, AG8W1, is for the blended wastes (DAW & IER) vitrification in a commercial vitrification facility in HanUl (former Ulchin) nuclear power plant. The physicochemical properties of the two glasses have been evaluated. To evaluate the processability of the glasses, the viscosities and electrical conductivities of the glass melts were measured in the laboratory within a temperature range between 950 and 1,350 degrees C, respectively. The liquidus temperatures of the glasses were evaluated using a gradient furnace for DG2 and data from heat treatment for AG8W1. The Mössbauer spectroscopy for AG8W1 was employed to evaluate the relations between the redox equilibria of iron. In addition, to verify the waste acceptance criteria for the final disposal of the vitrified forms, the compressive strengths of the vitrified forms were tested after an immersion test, a thermal cycling test, and an irradiation test. To verify the chemical durability of the glasses, several tests such as PCT, ISO, VHT, Soxhlet, MCC-1, and ANS16.1 were carried out. The PCT showed leach rates of B, Na, Li and Si were much less than those of the benchmark glass. The ISO test was performed at 90 degrees C for 1,022 days and Cumulative Fraction Leached of all elements in the glasses were analyzed. According to the VHT, the glasses had an outstanding chemical resistance under humid environment at 200 degrees C for 7 days. The Soxhlet leaching was performed on rectangular glass samples at 98 degrees C for 30 days. To analyze the forward dissolution rates of major glass elements, the MCC-1 was conducted at temperatures of 40, 70, and 90 degrees C for three weeks in pH buffer solutions ranging from pH 4 to 11. The processability of the glasses was in the desired ranges. And the product quality of the glasses met all regulatory guidelines. Using two glasses, the CCIM commissioning tests in the UVF were successfully performed and they showed good workability.
We performed this study to investigate the effect of histone deacetylase inhibition during extended culture of in vitro matured mouse oocytes. In vitro matured mouse (BDF1) oocytes were cultured in vitro for 6, 12, and 24 h, respectively, and then inseminated. During in vitro culture for 6 and 12 h, two doses of trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, were added (100 nM and 500 nM) to the culture medium and the oocytes were then inseminated. During the 24-h in vitro culture, two doses of TSA were added (100 nM and 500 nM) to the medium and the oocytes were activated with 10 mM SrCl2. After the 6-h culture, the fertilization rate was similar to that of the control group, but the blastocyst formation rate was significantly decreased. After the 12-h culture, both the fertilization and blastocyst formation rates were significantly decreased. After the 24-h culture, total fertilization failure occurred. In the oocytes cultured for 6 and 12 h, the fertilization and blastocyst formation rates did not differ between the TSA-supplemented and control groups. Although extended culture of the mouse oocytes significantly affected their fertilization and embryo development, TSA supplementation did not overcome their decreased developmental potential.
This study aimed to investigate whether aquaporin 3 (Aqp3) mRNAs are expressed in immature oocytes and altered during in vitro maturation process. Five- to 6-week-old female ICR mice were primed by gonadotropin for 24 and 48 h. Immature oocytes obtained 48 h after priming were also matured in vitro for 17 to 18 h. In vivo matured oocytes were obtained after 48 h priming followed by hCG injection. Total RNAs were extracted from 80 to 150 oocytes in each experimental group, and the levels of Aqp3 mRNA were quantified by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The experiments were repeated twice using different oocytes. The Aqp3 mRNA was expressed in immature oocytes, as well as in in vitro and in vivo matured oocytes. The expression level was higher in immature oocytes obtained 48 h after priming (17.2 ± 8.6, mean ± SD) than those with no priming (5.7 ± 0.8) or obtained 24 h after priming (2.5 ± 0.8). The expression of Aqp3 mRNA decreased after in vitro maturation (1.2 ± 0.5), which was similar to in vivo matured oocytes (1.0 ± 0.0). Our work demonstrated that Aqp3 mRNA expression increased during the development of immature oocyte but decreased after completion of in vitro maturation. The results indicate that AQP3 is certainly needed for the acquisition of immature oocytes’ full growing potential within antral follicles.
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