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ABSTRACT IMPACT: This study assesses patient and volumetric risk factors for distant recurrence within 6 months of completion of curative chemoradiation with brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Initial tumor volume and tumor shrinkage velocity are prognostic of cure and survival after curative chemoradiation (CRT) for cervical cancer. We explored whether local tumor volumetric changes influence time to distant recurrences outside the radiation field. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with FIGO Stage IB-IVA cervical cancer treated with curative CRT and brachytherapy at a tertiary academic center with minimum 3 months follow up and standard post-treatment FDG-PET. Patients received 6 weekly fractions of brachytherapy interdigitated with external beam radiation and cisplatin. Tumor volumes were assessed by MRI at brachytherapy planning. Patients who developed distant metastasis were classified as earliest (3-6 months), early (6-24 months) or late (>24 months) following completion of CRT. Absolute and percent decrease in tumor volume for each fraction were calculated with respect to first brachytherapy volume. Fisher’s exact and Mann Whitney-U tests were used for comparison of categorical and continuous variables. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: 143 of 574 (25%) patients developed distant metastasis. Distribution of age, histology, FIGO 2018 stage, primary tumor SUVmax, treatment length, and pre/post treatment squamous cell carcinoma antigen levels were not associated in each group. Para-aortic lymph metastases were more common in patients with earliest distant recurrence (33% earliest, 26% early, 12% late, p=0.03). Median initial tumor volume in the earliest (n=24), early (n =29) and late (n=9) groups was 57, 28 and 40 mL, respectively (p=0.08); 57 (earliest) vs 30mL (early+late groups), p=0.04. Average mid treatment (fraction 4) and end of treatment (fraction 6) percent shrinkage was 80 (earliest) vs 73 (early+late), p=0.84 and 94 vs 92, p=0.95, respectively. Neither absolute nor percent tumor shrinkage differed between early vs. late groups. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Tumor volumetric changes during definitive chemoradiation were not associated with the timing of developing distant metastasis, which is linked to presence of lymph node metastasis and tumor volume at diagnosis.
Maternal vitamin D insufficiency is associated with childhood rickets and longer-term problems including schizophrenia and type 1 diabetes. Whilst maternal vitamin D insufficiency is common in mothers with highly pigmented skin, little is known about vitamin D status of Caucasian pregnant women. The aim was to investigate vitamin D status in healthy Caucasian pregnant women and a group of age-matched non-pregnant controls living at 54–55°N. In a longitudinal study, plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was assessed in ninety-nine pregnant women at 12, 20 and 35 weeks of gestation, and in thirty-eight non-pregnant women sampled concurrently. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were lower in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women (P < 0·0001). Of the pregnant women, 35, 44 and 16 % were classified as vitamin D deficient (25(OH)D < 25 nmol/l), and 96, 96 and 75 % were classified as vitamin D insufficient (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l) at 12, 20 and 35 weeks gestation, respectively. Vitamin D status was higher in pregnant women who reported taking multivitamin supplements at 12 (P < 0·0001), 20 (P = 0·001) and 35 (P = 0·001) weeks gestation than in non-supplement users. Vitamin D insufficiency is evident in pregnant women living at 54–55°N. Women reporting use of vitamin D-containing supplements had higher vitamin D status, however, vitamin D insufficiency was still evident even in the face of supplement use. Given the potential consequences of hypovitaminosis D on health outcomes, vitamin D supplementation, perhaps at higher doses than currently available, is needed to improve maternal vitamin D nutriture.