This study searched for sociodemographic influences on visual memory and visuoconstructive ability in healthy and clinical samples evaluated with Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) in two studies. In Study 1, we searched for changes related to age in children, adolescents, adults and elderly on the performance of the BVRT. In Study 2, we investigated the relations among age, years of education and intellectual quotient (IQ) on the performance of the BVRT using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Participants were 624 individuals aged between six and 89 years old (M = 25.40; SD = 22.34) from the normatization and evidence validity studies at Brazil. We used a sociodemographic questionnaire, BVRT and IQ measure was estimated. Study 1 has shown a performance similar to the developmental graphics with a U-inverted pattern in relation to age: An increase of the visual memory ability in the children and adolescent groups as age increases, a tendency of a decrease in the performance in the adult group that intensifies in the elderly group. Study 2 found that the model for the BVRT performance tested by SEM denoted satisfactory goodness-of-fit indexes, χ2/gl = 2.67, p < .001; CFI = .92; TLI = .93; RMSEA = .004, 90% CI = [.03, .05];WLSMV = 1.79, and corroborated the theoretical assumption. The SEM model confirmed in this study highlight the strong role of years of education in the prediction of BVRT scores.