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In October 2017, the American Association of Blood Bankers (AABB; Bethesda, Maryland USA) approved a petition to allow low-titer group O whole blood as a standard product without the need for a waiver. Around that time, a few Texas, USA-based Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems incorporated whole blood into their ground ambulances. The purpose of this project was to describe the epidemiology of ground ambulance patients that received a prehospital whole blood transfusion. The secondary aim of this project was to report an accounting analysis of these ground ambulance prehospital whole blood programs.
The dataset came from the Harris County Emergency Service District 48 Fire Department (HCESD 48; Harris County, Texas USA) and San Antonio Fire Department (SAFD; San Antonio, Texas USA) whole blood Quality Assurance/Quality Improvement (QA/QI) databases from September 2017 through December 2018. The primary outcome of this study was the prehospital transfusion indication. The secondary outcome was the projected cost per life saved during the first 10 years of the prehospital whole blood initiative.
Of 58 consecutive prehospital whole blood administrations, the team included all 58 cases. Hemorrhagic shock from a non-traumatic etiology accounted for 46.5% (95% CI, 34.3%-59.2%) of prehospital whole blood recipients. In the non-traumatic hemorrhagic shock cohort, gastrointestinal hemorrhage was the underlying etiology of hemorrhagic shock in 66.7% (95% CI, 47.8%-81.4%) of prehospital whole blood transfusion recipients. The projected average cost to save a life in Year 10 was US$5,136.51 for the combined cohort, US$4,512.69 for HCESD 48, and US$5,243.72 for SAFD EMS.
This retrospective analysis of ground ambulance patients that receive prehospital whole blood transfusion found that non-traumatic etiology accounted for 46.5% (95% CI, 34.3%-59.2%) of prehospital whole blood recipients. Additionally, the accounting analysis suggests that by Year 10 of a ground ambulance whole blood transfusion program, the average cost to save a life will be approximately US$5,136.51.
To date, there are no published data on the association of patient-centered outcomes and accurate public-safety answering point (PSAP) dispatch in an American population. The goal of this study is to determine if PSAP dispatcher recognition of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is associated with neurologically intact survival to hospital discharge.
This retrospective cohort study is an analysis of prospectively collected Quality Assurance/Quality Improvement (QA/QI) data from the San Antonio Fire Department (SAFD; San Antonio, Texas USA) OHCA registry from January 2013 through December 2015. Exclusion criteria were: Emergency Medical Services (EMS)-witnessed arrest, traumatic arrest, age <18 years old, no dispatch type recorded, and missing outcome data. The primary exposure was dispatcher recognition of cardiac arrest. The primary outcome was neurologically intact survival (defined as Cerebral Performance Category [CPC] 1 or 2) to hospital discharge. The secondary outcomes were: bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), automated external defibrillator (AED) use, and prehospital return of spontaneous return of circulation (ROSC).
Of 3,469 consecutive OHCA cases, 2,569 cases were included in this analysis. The PSAP dispatched 1,964/2,569 (76.4%) of confirmed OHCA cases correctly. The PSAP dispatched 605/2,569 (23.6%) of confirmed OHCA cases as another chief complaint. Neurologically intact survival to hospital discharge occurred in 99/1,964 (5.0%) of the recognized cardiac arrest group and 28/605 (4.6%) of the unrecognized cardiac arrest group (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.71–1.70). Bystander CPR occurred in 975/1,964 (49.6%) of the recognized cardiac arrest group versus 138/605 (22.8%) of the unrecognized cardiac arrest group (OR = 3.34; 95% CI, 2.70–4.11).
This study found no association between PSAP dispatcher identification of OHCA and neurologically intact survival to hospital discharge. Dispatcher identification of OHCA remains an important, but not singularly decisive link in the OHCA chain of survival.
The “Stop the Bleed” campaign advocates for non-medical personnel to be trained in basic hemorrhage control. However, it is not clear what type of education or the duration of instruction needed to meet that requirement. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of a brief hemorrhage control educational curriculum on the willingness of laypersons to respond during a traumatic emergency.
This “Stop the Bleed” education initiative was conducted by the University of Texas Health San Antonio Office of the Medical Director (San Antonio, Texas USA) between September 2016 and March 2017. Individuals with formal medical certification were excluded from this analysis. Trainers used a pre-event questionnaire to assess participants knowledge and attitudes about tourniquets and responding to traumatic emergencies. Each training course included an individual evaluation of tourniquet placement, 20 minutes of didactic instruction on hemorrhage control techniques, and hands-on instruction with tourniquet application on both adult and child mannequins. The primary outcome in this study was the willingness to use a tourniquet in response to a traumatic medical emergency.
Of 236 participants, 218 met the eligibility criteria. When initially asked if they would use a tourniquet in real life, 64.2% (140/218) responded “Yes.” Following training, 95.6% (194/203) of participants responded that they would use a tourniquet in real life. When participants were asked about their comfort level with using a tourniquet in real life, there was a statistically significant improvement between their initial response and their response post training (2.5 versus 4.0, based on 5-point Likert scale; P<.001).
In this hemorrhage control education study, it was found that a short educational intervention can improve laypersons’ self-efficacy and reported willingness to use a tourniquet in an emergency. Identified barriers to act should be addressed when designing future hemorrhage control public health education campaigns. Community education should continue to be a priority of the “Stop the Bleed” campaign.
RossEM, RedmanTT, MappJG, BrownDJ, TanakaK, CooleyCW, KharodCU, WamplerDA. Stop the Bleed: The Effect of Hemorrhage Control Education on Laypersons’ Willingness to Respond During a Traumatic Medical Emergency. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(2):127–132.