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The present study aimed to develop an isotope protocol to achieve equilibrium of 13CO2 in breath of cats during carbon oxidation studies using L-[1-13C]-Phenylalanine (L-[1-13C]-Phe), provided orally in repeated meals. One adult male cat was used in two experiments. In each experiment, three isotope protocols were tested in triplicate using the same cat. During carbon oxidation study days, the cat was offered thirteen small meals to achieve and maintain a physiological fed state. In experiment 1, the isotope protocols tested (A, B and C) had a similar priming dose of NaH13CO3 (0⋅176 mg/kg; offered in meal 6), but different priming [4⋅8 mg/kg (A) or 9⋅4 mg/kg (B and C); provided in meal 6] and constant [1⋅04 mg/kg (A and B) or 2⋅4 mg/kg (C); offered in meals 6–13] doses of L-[1-13C]-Phe. In experiment 2, the isotope protocols tested (D, E and F) had similar priming (4⋅8 mg/kg; provided in meal 5) and constant (1⋅04 mg/kg; provided in meals 5–13) doses of L-[1-13C]-Phe, but increasing priming doses of NaH13CO3 (D: 0⋅264, E: 0⋅352, F: 0⋅44 mg/kg; provided in meal 4). Breath samples were collected using respiration chambers (25-min intervals) and CO2 trapping to determine 13CO2:12CO2. Isotopic steady state was defined as the enrichment of 13CO2, above background samples, remaining constant in at least the last three samples. Treatment F resulted in the earliest achievement of 13CO2 steady state in the cat's breath. This feeding and isotope protocol can be used in future studies aiming to study amino acid metabolism in cats.
There is a known high prevalence of genetic and clinical syndrome diagnoses in the paediatric cardiac population. These disorders often have multisystem effects, which may have an important impact on neurodevelopmental outcomes. Taken together, these facts suggest that patients and families may benefit from consultation by genetic specialists in a cardiac neurodevelopmental clinic.
This study assessed the burden of genetic disorders and utility of genetics evaluation in a cardiac neurodevelopmental clinic.
A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients evaluated in a cardiac neurodevelopmental clinic from 6 December, 2011 to 16 April, 2013. All patients were seen by a cardiovascular geneticist with genetic counselling support.
A total of 214 patients were included in this study; 64 of these patients had a pre-existing genetic or syndromic diagnosis. Following genetics evaluation, an additional 19 were given a new clinical or laboratory-confirmed genetic diagnosis including environmental such as teratogenic exposures, malformation associations, chromosomal disorders, and single-gene disorders. Genetic testing was recommended for 112 patients; radiological imaging to screen for congenital anomalies for 17 patients; subspecialist medical referrals for 73 patients; and non-genetic clinical laboratory testing for 14 patients. Syndrome-specific guidelines were available and followed for 25 patients with known diagnosis. American Academy of Pediatrics Red Book asplenia guideline recommendations were given for five heterotaxy patients, and family-based cardiac screening was recommended for 23 families affected by left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.
Genetics involvement in a cardiac neurodevelopmental clinic is helpful in identifying new unifying diagnoses and providing syndrome-specific care, which may impact the patient’s overall health status and neurodevelopmental outcome.
This study compares age estimates of recent peat deposits in 10 European ombrotrophic (precipitation-fed) bogs produced using the 14C bomb peak, 210Pb, 137Cs, spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs), and pollen. At 3 sites, the results of the different dating methods agree well. In 5 cores, there is a clear discrepancy between the 14C bomb peak and 210Pb age estimates. In the upper layers of the profiles, the age estimates of 14C and 210Pb are in agreement. However, with increasing depth, the difference between the age estimates appears to become progressively greater. The evidence from the sites featured in the study suggests that, provided aboveground plant material (seeds, leaves) is selected for dating, the 14C bomb peak is a reliable dating method, and is not significantly affected by the incorporation of old carbon with low 14C content originating from sources including air pollution deposition or methane produced by peat decomposition. 210Pb age estimates that are too old may be explained by the enrichment of 210Pb activity in the surface layers of peat resulting from a hypothesized mechanism where rapidly infilling hollows, rich in binding sites, may scavenge 210Pb associated with dissolved organic matter passing through the hollow, as part of the surface drainage network. Until further research identifies and resolves the cause of the inaccuracy in 210Pb dating, age estimates of peat samples based only on 210Pb should be used with caution.
Nanoscience has, in many ways, grown up in parallel with the Materials Research Society. Although “nanoscience” and “nanotechnology” are buzzwords that were “discovered” in Washington, D.C., and in the capitals of countries around the world a number of years ago, nanoscience has actually been developing for several decades. The emergence of nanoscience as a fascinating and fruitful area of research has occurred primarily for two reasons: (1) materials have new and unpredictable properties at the nanoscale; and (2) it is now possible to make things controllably on the nanoscale and to see them.
Thin films of NiFe2O4 were deposited on SrTiO3 (001) and Y0.15Zr0.85O2 (yttria-stabilized zirconia) (001) and (011) substrates by 90°-off-axis sputtering. Ion channeling, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy studies reveal that films grown at 600 °C consist of ∼300 Å diameter grains separated by thin regions of highly defective or amorphous material. The development of this microstructure is attributed to the presence of rotated or displaced crystallographic domains and is comparable to that observed in other materials grown on mismatched substrates (e.g., GaAs/Si or Ba2YCu3O7/MgO). Postdeposition annealing at 1000 °C yields films that are essentially single crystal. The magnetic properties of the films are strongly affected by the structural changes; unannealed films are not magnetically saturated even in an applied field of 55 kOe, while the annealed films have properties comparable to those of bulk, single crystal NiFe2O4. Homoepitaxial films grown at 400 °C also are essentially single crystal.