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Background: In low- and middle-income country (LMIC) healthcare facilities, gaps in infection prevention and control (IPC) practices increase risk of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and mortality among hospitalized neonates. Method: In this quasi-experimental study, we implemented the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP) to improve adherence to evidence-based IPC practices in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in 4 tertiary-care facilities in Pune, India. CUSP is a validated strategy to empower staff to improve unit-level patient safety. Baseline safety culture was measured using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS). Baseline IPC assessments using the Infection Control Assessment Tool (ICAT) were completed to describe existing IPC practices to identify focus areas, the first of which was hand hygiene (HH). Sites received training in CUSP methodology and formed multidisciplinary CUSP teams, which met monthly and were supported by monthly coaching calls. Staff safety assessments (SSAs) guided selection of multimodal interventions. HH compliance was measured by direct observation using trained external observers. The primary outcome was HH compliance, evaluated monthly during the implementation and maintenance phases. Secondary outcomes included CUSP meeting frequency and HH compliance by healthcare worker (HCW) role. Result: In March 2018, 144 HCWs and administrators participated in CUSP training. Site meetings occurred monthly. During the implementation phase (June 2018–January 2019), HH monitoring commenced, sites formed their teams, completed the SSA, and selected interventions to improve HH based on the WHO’s IPC multimodal improvement strategy: (1) system change; (2) training and education; (3) monitoring and feedback; (4) reminders and communication; and (5) a culture of safety (Fig. 1). During the maintenance phase (February–September 2019), HH was monitored monthly and sites adapted interventions as needed. HH compliance improved from 58% to 70% at participant sites from implementation to maintenance phases (Fig. 2), with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.66 (95% CI, 1.50–1.84; P < .001). HH compliance improved across all HCW roles: (1) physician compliance improved from 55% to 67% (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.42–2.01; P < .001); (2) nurse compliance from 61% to 73% (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.46–1.93; P < .001); and (3) other HCW compliance from 52% to 62% (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10–1.99; P = .010). Conclusion: CUSP was successfully adapted by 4 diverse tertiary-care NICUs in Pune, India, and it resulted in increased HH compliance at all sites. This multimodal strategy is a promising framework for LMIC healthcare facilities to sustainably address IPC gaps and reduce HAI and mortality in neonates.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Provider and hospital factors influence quality, but granular data is lacking to assess their impact on renal cancer surgery. The Maryland Health Service Cost Review Commission (HSCRC) is an independent state agency that promotes cost containment, access to care and accountability. Within HSCRC, we aimed to assess the impact of surgeon and hospital volume on 30-day outcomes after renal cancer surgery. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Data on renal surgery were abstracted from the Maryland HSCRC from 2000-2018. We excluded patients younger than 18, patients without a diagnosis of renal cancer, and patients concurrently receiving another major surgery. Volume categories were derived from the distribution of mean cases performed per year. We used adjusted multivariable logistic and linear regression models to identify associations of surgeon and hospital volume with the length of stay, days in intensive care, cost, 30-day mortality, readmission, and complications. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: A total of 10,590 surgeries, completed by 669 surgeons at 48 hospitals, met criteria. The 25th percentile for cases per year was 1, the 50th percentile was 1.2, and the 75th percentile was 2.6. After adjusting for patient factors and cumulative surgeon experience, high volume surgeons had the greatest decrease in length of stay (β: −1.65, P<0.001) and mortality risk (OR: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.10-0.71) compared to rare volume surgeons. Low volume surgeons had the greatest cost decrease (β: -$7,300, P<0.001) compared to rare volume surgeons. Medium volume hospitals had statistically lower average costs than rare volume hospitals (β: $−2,862, P = 0.005). There were no other clinically and statistically significant relationships between volume and measured outcomes. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Almost half of the urologists studied performed an average of one renal cancer case per year. Greater surgeon volume was associated with shorter length of stay and decreased mortality risk. Hospital volume did not have a meaningful relationship to outcomes. Other factors such as tumor, surgeon, and hospital characteristics or case-mix may associate with outcomes and could be confounders.
Despite improvements in the medical and surgical management of infants with CHD, growth failure before surgery in many infants continues to be a significant concern. A nutritional pathway was developed, the aim of which was to provide a structured approach to nutritional care for infants with CHD awaiting surgery.
Materials and methods
The modified Delphi process was development of a nutritional pathway; initial stakeholder meeting to finalise draft guidelines and develop questions; round 1 anonymous online survey; round 2 online survey; regional cardiac conference and pathway revision; and final expert meeting and pathway finalisation.
Paediatric Dietitians from all 11 of the paediatric cardiology surgical centres in the United Kingdom contributed to the guideline development. In all, 33% of participants had 9 or more years of experience working with infants with CHD. By the end of rounds 1 and 2, 76 and 96% of participants, respectively, were in agreement with the statements. Three statements where consensus was not achieved by the end of round 2 were discussed and agreed at the final expert group meeting.
Nutrition guidelines were developed for infants with CHD awaiting surgery, using a modified Delphi process, incorporating the best available evidence and expert opinion with regard to nutritional support in this group.
The scientific advances that underpin economic growth and human health would not be possible without research investments. Yet demonstrating the impact of research programs is a challenge, especially in areas that span disciplines, industrial sectors, and encompass both public and private sector activity. All areas of research are under pressure to demonstrate benefits from federal funding of research. This exciting and innovative study demonstrates new methods and tools to trace the impact of federal research funding on the structure of research, and the subsequent economic activities of funded researchers. The case study is food safety research, which is critical to avoiding outbreaks of disease. The authors make use of an extraordinary new data infrastructure and apply new techniques in text analysis. Focusing on the impact of US federal food safety research, this book develops vital data-intensive methodologies that have a real world application to many other scientific fields.
Healthy adults (n 30) participated in a placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blinded, cross-over study consisting of two 28 d treatments (β2-1 fructan or maltodextrin; 3×5 g/d) separated by a 14-d washout. Subjects provided 1 d faecal collections at days 0 and 28 of each treatment. The ability of faecal bacteria to metabolise β2-1 fructan was common; eighty-seven species (thirty genera, and four phyla) were isolated using anaerobic medium containing β2-1 fructan as the sole carbohydrate source. β2-1 fructan altered the faecal community as determined through analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms and 16S rRNA genes. Supplementation with β2-1 fructan reduced faecal community richness, and two patterns of community change were observed. In most subjects, β2-1 fructan reduced the content of phylotypes aligning within the Bacteroides, whereas increasing those aligning within bifidobacteria, Faecalibacterium and the family Lachnospiraceae. In the remaining subjects, supplementation increased the abundance of Bacteroidetes and to a lesser extent bifidobacteria, accompanied by decreases within the Faecalibacterium and family Lachnospiraceae. β2-1 Fructan had no impact on the metagenome or glycoside hydrolase profiles in faeces from four subjects. Few relationships were found between the faecal bacterial community and various host parameters; Bacteroidetes content correlated with faecal propionate, subjects whose faecal community contained higher Bacteroidetes produced more caproic acid independent of treatment, and subjects having lower faecal Bacteroidetes exhibited increased concentrations of serum lipopolysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide binding protein independent of treatment. We found no evidence to support a defined health benefit for the use of β2-1 fructans in healthy subjects.
β2-1 Fructans are purported to improve health by stimulating growth of colonic bifidobacteria, increasing host resistance to pathogens and stimulating the immune system. However, in healthy adults, the benefits of supplementation remain undefined. Adults (thirteen men, seventeen women) participated in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomised, cross-over study consisting of two 28-d treatments separated by a 14-d washout period. Subjects’ regular diets were supplemented with β2-1 fructan or placebo (maltodextrin) at 3×5 g/d. Fasting blood and 1-d faecal collections were obtained at the beginning and at the end of each phase. Blood was analysed for clinical, biochemical and immunological variables. Determinations of well-being and general health, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, regularity, faecal SCFA content, residual faecal β2-1 fructans and faecal bifidobacteria content were undertaken. β2-1 Fructan supplementation had no effect on blood lipid or cholesterol concentrations or on circulating lymphocyte and macrophage numbers, but significantly increased serum lipopolysaccharide, faecal SCFA, faecal bifidobacteria and indigestion. With respect to immune function, β2-1 fructan supplementation increased serum IL-4, circulating percentages of CD282+/TLR2+ myeloid dendritic cells and ex vivo responsiveness to a toll-like receptor 2 agonist. β2-1 Fructans also decreased serum IL-10, but did not affect C-reactive protein or serum/faecal Ig concentrations. No differences in host well-being were associated with either treatment, although the self-reported incidence of GI symptoms and headaches increased during the β2-1 fructan phase. Although β2-1 fructan supplementation increased faecal bifidobacteria, this change was not directly related to any of the determined host parameters.