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Using easy-to-follow mathematics, this textbook provides comprehensive coverage of block codes and techniques for reliable communications and data storage. It covers major code designs and constructions from geometric, algebraic, and graph-theoretic points of view, decoding algorithms, error control additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and erasure, and dataless recovery. It simplifies a highly mathematical subject to a level that can be understood and applied with a minimum background in mathematics, provides step-by-step explanation of all covered topics, both fundamental and advanced, and includes plenty of practical illustrative examples to assist understanding. Numerous homework problems are included to strengthen student comprehension of new and abstract concepts, and a solutions manual is available online for instructors. Modern developments, including polar codes, are also covered. An essential textbook for senior undergraduates and graduates taking introductory coding courses, students taking advanced full-year graduate coding courses, and professionals working on coding for communications and data storage.
Across Eurasia, horse transport transformed ancient societies. Although evidence for chariotry is well dated, the origins of horse riding are less clear. Techniques to distinguish chariotry from riding in archaeological samples rely on elements not typically recovered from many steppe contexts. Here, the authors examine horse remains of Mongolia's Deer Stone-Khirigsuur (DSK) Complex, comparing them with ancient and modern East Asian horses used for both types of transport. DSK horses demonstrate unique dentition damage that could result from steppe chariotry, but may also indicate riding with a shallow rein angle at a fast gait. A key role for chariots in Late Bronze Age Mongolia helps explain the trajectory of horse use in early East Asia.
Steam jet milling was applied for the first time to ultra-fine grind the filter cake (moisture content 23.80%) produced by a kaolin concentrator. The material was dehydrated and dried simultaneously during grinding, and the final ground sample met the moisture content requirement for powder products of <2%. The particle size of the ground kaolin samples decreased and the particle-size distribution was more concentrated, indicating that the steam jet milling was more effective for kaolin processing than the conventional dry grinding process. In addition, steam jet milling can improve the whiteness and decrease the crystal order of the samples, thus improving the kaolin properties in follow-up applications.
Nearly three times as many people detained in a jail have a serious mental illness (SMI) when compared to community samples. Once an individual with SMI gets involved in the criminal justice system, they are more likely than the general population to stay in the system, face repeated incarcerations, and return to prison more quickly when compared to their nonmentally ill counterparts.
Emergent public health events, such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), have been the focus of attention of researchers at home and abroad. In China, nurses are an important group contributing to the prevention and control of the COVID-19 pneumonia epidemic.
Using semi-structured interviews, qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 nurses who supported the novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic, and the data were collated and analyzed using Colaizzi analysis.
The work experience of Chinese nurses can be summarized into 4 major themes: they had different emotional experiences during aiding periods, aiding work had a double impact on the nurses, there were certain difficulties in aiding work, and there were significant age differences in aiding work experience.
It is necessary to strengthen the psychological construction of nurses. All hospitals must coordinate and manage various safety tasks, and ensure the precise, scientific, and streamlined deployment of rescue work. Humanized management, shift adjustment, performance allocation weight, and organizational care are also the top priorities of human resource management.
The Cal-DSH Diversion Guidelines provide 10 general guidelines that jurisdictions should consider when developing diversion programs for individuals with a serious mental illness (SMI) who become involved in the criminal justice system. Screening for SMI in a jail setting is reviewed. In addition, important treatment interventions for SMI and substance use disorders are highlighted with the need to address criminogenic risk factors highlighted.
Disorder of hepatic glucose metabolism is the characteristic of late-pregnant sows. The purpose of our study was to look into the mechanism of garcinol on the improvement of hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme in late-pregnant sows. Thirty second- and third-parity sows (Duroc × Yorkshire × Landrace, n 10/diet) were fed a basal diet (control) or that diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg (Low Gar) or 500 mg/kg (High Gar) garcinol from day 90 of gestation to the end of farrowing. The livers were processed to measure enzymatic activity. Hepatocytes from pregnant sows were transfected with P300/CBP-associating factor (PCAF) small interfering RNA (siRNA) or treated with garcinol. Dietary garcinol had no effect on average daily feed intake, body weight (BW), backfat and BW gain of late-pregnant sows. Garcinol promoted plasma glucose levels in pregnant sows and newborn piglets. Garcinol up-regulated hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme expression and decreased PCAF activity. Garcinol had no effect on the expression of PPAR-γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and Forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) but significantly increased their activity and decreased their acetylation in late-pregnant sows. Transfection of PCAF siRNA to hepatocytes of pregnant sows increased PGC-1α and FOXO1 activities. Furthermore, in hepatocytes of pregnant sows, garcinol treatment also up-regulated the activities of PGC-1α and FOXO1 and inhibited the acetylation of PGC-1α and FOXO1. Garcinol improves hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme expression in late-pregnant sows, and this may be due to the mechanism of down-regulating the acetylation of PGC-1α and FOXO1 induced by PCAF in isolated hepatocytes.
Having enterprises engaged in environmentally friendly behavior is an important part of reducing negative environmental impacts. This study makes a quantitative analysis against the backdrop of China's transitional economic system. The results show that politically-connected enterprises significantly reduce environmental expenditure, but this only holds for state-owned enterprises; private enterprises with political connections spend significantly more. Analysis of the efficiency of environmental expenditure indicates that, for private enterprises, environmental spending is used as a way to maintain political connections, with rent-seeking as the likely motivation. Politically-connected private enterprises have not reduced their emissions to the same extent as state-owned enterprises, despite increased expenditure. Given the scale of environmental degradation in China during a period of massive economic and social upheaval, the results of this analysis provide a quantitative case for policy change: governments should shift focus to the results that environmental spending produces.
The unsteady forces acting on a body depend strongly on the local flow structures such as vortices. A quantitative understanding of the contribution of these structures to the instantaneous overall force is of fundamental significance. In the present study, a three-dimensional (3-D) vortex force map (VFM) method, extended from a two-dimensional (2-D) one, is used to provide better insight into the complex 3-D flow dynamics. The VFM vectors are obtained from solutions of potential equations and used to build the 3-D VFMs where the critical regions and directions associated with significant positive or negative contributions to the forces are identified. Using the existing velocity/vorticity field near the body, these VFMs can be used to obtain the body forces. A decomposed form of the force formula is also derived to separate the correction term contributed from the uncaptured vortices (close to or far away from the body). The present method is applied to the starting flow of a delta wing at high angle of attack, where LEVs are enhanced and stabilized by an axial flow effect. The analogy between the normal force of a slender delta wing and that of a 2-D flat plate with a steadily growing span is demonstrated via the VFM analysis. We find, for this application, that the force evolution exhibits some similar behaviour to a 2-D airfoil starting flow and, surprisingly, the force contribution mainly comes from the conical vortex sheet rather than the central core. Moreover, a quantitative understanding of the influence of LEVs in different evolution regimes on the body force is demonstrated.
Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry protein TgROP18 is a polymorphic virulence effector that targets immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) in rodents. Given that IRGs are uniquely diversified in rodents and not in other T. gondii intermediate hosts, the role of TgROP18 in manipulating non-rodent cells is unclear. Here we show that in human cells TgROP18I interacts with the interferon-gamma-inducible protein N-myc and STAT interactor (NMI) and that this is a property that is unique to the type I TgROP18 allele. Specifically, when expressed ectopically in mammalian cells only TgROP18I co-immunoprecipitates with NMI in IFN-γ-treated cells, while TgROP18II does not. In parasites expressing TgROP18I or TgROP18II, NMI only co-immunoprecipitates with TgROP18I and this is associated with allele-specific immunolocalization of NMI on the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM). We also found that TgROP18I reduces NMI association with IFN-γ-activated sequences (GAS) in the IRF1 gene promoter. Finally, we determined that polymorphisms in the C-terminal kinase domain of TgROP18I are required for allele-specific effects on NMI. Together, these data further define new host pathway targeted by TgROP18I and provide the first function driven by allelic differences in the highly polymorphic ROP18 locus.
Most skarns are found near the pluton or in lithologies containing at least some limestone. However, recent research has shown that neither a pluton nor limestone is necessarily required to form a skarn deposit. The newly discovered Bagenheigeqier Pb–Zn skarn deposit is located in NE China. The skarn and Pb–Zn orebodies occur in volcanic lithologies of the Baiyin’gaolao Formation and are controlled by NE–SW-trending faults. The nearest pluton is a granite porphyry, at a distance of 20–250 m from the orebodies. Five paragenetic stages at Bagenheigeqier are recognized: (I) skarn; (II) oxide; (III) early sulphide; (IV) late sulphide; and (V) late quartz–calcite. The fluid inclusions from stages II to V homogenized at temperatures of 402–452, 360–408, 274–319 and 167–212°C, respectively. The hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions (δ18OH2O, –12.4‰ to +9.3‰; δDH2O, –156.5‰ to –99.1‰) indicate that the ore-fluids were primarily of magmatic origin, with the proportion of meteoric water increasing during the progression of ore formation. Sulphur isotope values (δ34SVCDT, 1.4–5.5‰), lead isotope values (206Pb/204Pb, 18.184–18.717; 207Pb/204Pb, 15.520–15.875; 208Pb/204Pb, 37.991–38.379) and the initial 187Os/188Os ratios of the pyrite (0.307 ± 0.06) suggest that the ore metals were derived from the granite porphyry and Baiyin’gaolao Formation. Re–Os dating of pyrite intergrown with galena and sphalerite yielded a well-constrained isochron age of 151.2 ± 4.7 Ma, which is coeval with the laser ablation – inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry zircon U–Pb age of 154 ± 1 Ma for the granite porphyry. The deposit was therefore formed during Late Jurassic time.
Large-scale circulations around a city are co-modulated by the urban heat island and by regional wind patterns. Depending on these variables, the circulations fall into different regimes ranging from advection-dominated (plume regime) to convection-driven (bubble regime). Using dimensional analysis and large-eddy simulations, this study investigates how these different circulations scale with urban and rural heat fluxes, as well as upstream wind speed. Two dimensionless parameters are shown to control the dynamics of the flow: (1) the ratio of rural to urban thermal convective velocities that contrasts their respective buoyancy fluxes and (2) the ratio of bulk inflow velocity to the convection velocity in the rural area. Finally, the vertical flow velocities transecting the rural to urban transitions are used to develop a criterion for categorizing different large-scale circulations into plume, bubble or transitional regimes. The findings have implications for city ventilation since bubble regimes are expected to trap pollutants, as well as for scaling analysis in canonical mixed-convection flows.
Ketosis is a metabolic disease of dairy cows often characterized by high concentrations of ketone bodies and fatty acids, but low milk protein and milk production. The Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways are central for the regulation of milk protein synthesis. The effect of high levels of fatty acids on these pathways and β-casein synthesis are unknown in dairy cows with clinical ketosis. Mammary gland tissue and blood samples were collected from healthy (n = 15) and clinically-ketotic (n = 15) cows. In addition, bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC) were treated with fatty acids, methionine (Met) or prolactin (PRL), respectively. In vivo, the serum concentration of fatty acids was greater (P > 0.05) and the percentage of milk protein (P > 0.05) was lower in cows with clinical ketosis. The JAK2-STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways were inhibited and the abundance of β-casein was lower in mammary tissue of cows with clinical ketosis (P > 0.05). In vitro, high levels of fatty acids inhibited the JAK2-STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways (P > 0.05) and further decreased the β-casein synthesis (P > 0.05) in BMEC. Methionine or PRL treatment, as positive regulators, activated the JAK2-STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways to increase the β-casein synthesis. Importantly, the high concentration of fatty acids attenuated the positive effect of Met or PRL on mTOR, JAK2-STAT5 pathways and the abundance of β-casein (P > 0.05). Overall, these data indicate that the high concentrations of fatty acids that reach the mammary cells during clinical ketosis inhibit mTOR and JAK2-STAT5 signaling pathways, and further suppress β-casein synthesis.
In this paper, a vortex moment map (VMM) method is proposed to predict the pitching moment on a body from the vorticity field. VMM is designed to identify the moment contribution of each given vortex in the flow field. Implementing this VMM approach in starting flows of a NACA0012 airfoil, it is found that, due to the rolling up of leading-edge vortices (LEVs) and trailing-edge vortices (TEVs), the unsteady nose-down moment about the quarter chord is higher than the steady-state value. The time variation of the unsteady moment is closely related to the LEVs and TEVs near the body and the VMM gives an intuitive understanding of how each part of the vorticity field contributes to the pitching moment on the body.
The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of n-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA, at an EPA:DHA ratio of 150:500) and phytosterol esters (PS) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ninety-six NAFLD subjects were randomly assigned to the following groups: the PS group (receiving 3·3 g/d PS); the FO group (receiving 450 mg EPA + 1500 mg DHA/d); the PS + FO combination group (receiving 3·3 g/d PS and 450 mg EPA + 1500 mg DHA/d) and the PO group (a placebo group). The baseline clinical characteristics of the four groups were similar. The primary outcome was liver:spleen attenuation ratio (L:S ratio). The percentage increase in liver–spleen attenuation (≤1) in the PS + FO group was 36 % (P = 0·083), higher than those in the other three groups (PS group, 11 %, P = 0·519; FO group, 18 %, P = 0·071; PO group, 15 %, P = 0·436). Compared with baseline, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) was significantly decreased in the three study groups at the end of the trial (PS, P = 0·000; FO, P = 0·002; PS + FO, P = 0·001) and TNF-α was significantly decreased in the FO group (P = 0·036), PS + FO group (P = 0·005) and PO group (P = 0·032) at the end of the intervention. Notably, TGF-β was reduced significantly more in the PS + FO group than in the PO group (P = 0·032). The TAG and total cholesterol levels of the PS + FO group were reduced by 11·57 and 9·55 %, respectively. In conclusion, co-supplementation of PS and EPA + DHA could increase the effectiveness of treatment for hepatic steatosis.
Regarding the effect of composition on the mechanical properties of intermetallic phases such as Laves phases, there is conflicting information in the literature. Some authors observed defect hardening when deviating from stoichiometric Laves phase composition, whereas others find defect softening. Here, we present a systematic investigation of the defect state, hardness, and elastic modulus of cubic and hexagonal NbCo2 Laves phases as a function of crystal structure and composition. For this purpose, diffusion couples were prepared which exhibit diffusion layers of the cubic C15 and hexagonal C14 and C36 NbCo2 Laves phases, with concentration gradients covering their entire homogeneity ranges from 24 to 37 at.% Nb. Direct observations of dislocations and stacking faults in the diffusion layers as a function of composition were performed by electron channeling contrast imaging, and the hardness and elastic modulus were probed in the diffusion layers along the concentration gradients by nanoindentation.
Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) is an abundant and important presynaptic vesicle protein that binds Ca2+ for the regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Our previous study reported its localization and function on spindle assembly in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. The present study was designed to investigate the function of Syt1 during mouse oocyte activation and subsequent cortical granule exocytosis (CGE) using confocal microscopy, morpholinol-based knockdown and time-lapse live cell imaging. By employing live cell imaging, we first studied the dynamic process of CGE and calculated the time interval between [Ca2+]i rise and CGE after oocyte activation. We further showed that Syt1 was co-localized to cortical granules (CGs) at the oocyte cortex. After oocyte activation with SrCl2, the Syt1 distribution pattern was altered significantly, similar to the changes seen for the CGs. Knockdown of Syt1 inhibited [Ca2+]i oscillations, disrupted the F-actin distribution pattern and delayed the time of cortical reaction. In summary, as a synaptic vesicle protein and calcium sensor for exocytosis, Syt1 acts as an essential regulator in mouse oocyte activation events including the generation of Ca2+ signals and CGE.