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To characterize red eye reactions occurring within 24 hours after receipt of units of leukocyte-reduced red blood cells, determine their etiology, and investigate their potential link to transfusion.
We conducted a survey of transfusion facilities nationwide to determine the scope and magnitude of the reactions; performed case-control and cohort studies among transfused patients at the facility where most reactions occurred; and performed animal experiments, using cellulose acetate derivatives extracted from leukocyte-reduction filters and filter precursors, to reproduce reactions.
From January 1, 1997, through January 15, 1998, we identified 159 reactions in 117 patients from 17 states. Reactions were characterized by conjunctival erythema or hemorrhage (in 100% of patients), eye pain (in 62%), photophobia (in 46%), and decreased visual acuity (in 32%). Symptom onset occurred 1-24 hours after initiation of transfusion and resolved within a median of 5 days. Reactions were associated with transfusion sessions that included units of red blood cells filtered with a specific brand of filter, the LeukoNet filter (HemaSure) (odds ratio, 100.4; P< .001). There was a dose-response relationship between the number of LeukoNet-filtered units transfused and the attack rate for reactions, ranging from 0.8% among sessions in which 1 unit was transfused to 27.3% among sessions in which 3 or more units were transfused (P< .001). A similar ocular syndrome was elicited in rabbits injected with cellulose acetate derivatives extracted from unused LeukoNet filters or filter precursors. No reactions were reported after LeukoNet filters were withdrawn from the market.
This transfusion-associated red eye syndrome was linked to a specific brand of leukocyte-reduction filter and likely resulted from cellulose acetate derivatives leached from the filter membrane.
To determine the cause of an outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections (BSIs) among neonates in a high-risk nursery and to institute control measures.
During the on-site investigation, a cohort study to identify risk factors for K. pneumoniae BSI, a point-prevalence study to assess K. pneumoniae colonization, a maternal cohort study to determine maternal K. pneumoniae colonization, and an observational study to evaluate healthcare worker (HCW) compliance with infection control practices were conducted.
Patients And Setting:
Neonates in a 40-bed high-risk nursery in a 700-bed university hospital in Cali, Colombia.
Cohorting of neonates colonized with K. pneumoniae.
The overall K. pneumoniae BSI attack rate was 10 of 105 (9.5%). In the retrospective cohort study, the number of blood transfusions (OR, 3.1 per transfusion; P = .02; CI95,1.4–9.7) and intravenous injections (OR, 1.2 per injection; P = .04; CI95, 1.0–1.5) were independently associated with K. pneumoniae BSI. The overall prevalence of K. pneumoniae colonization was 61% among neonates and 7% among mothers. During the HCW assessment, suboptimal intravenous therapy practices were observed. A cohorting intervention resulted in a significant reduction in K. pneumoniae colonization (12% vs 61%; RR, 0.19; P < .001). During the intervention period, no K. pneumoniae BSIs occurred.
This investigation suggested that the outbreak probably occurred due to widespread colonization and suboptimal infection control and intravenous therapy practices. Cohorting successfully reduced the overall prevalence of K. pneumoniae colonization and, along with improved infection control practices, probably prevented K. pneumoniae BSIs.
Defining risk factors for central venous catheter (CVC)-associated bloodstream infections (BSIs) is critical to establishing prevention measures, especially for factors such as nurse staffing and antimicrobial-impregnated CVCs.
We prospectively monitored CVCs, nurse staffing, and patient-related variables for CVC-associated BSIs among adults admitted to eight ICUs during 2 years.
A total of 240 CVC-associated BSIs (2.8%) were identified among 4,535 patients, representing 8,593 CVCs. Antimicrobial-impregnated CVCs reduced the risk for CVC-associated BSI only among patients whose CVC was used to administer total parenteral nutrition (TPN, 2.6 CVC-associated BSIs per 1,000 CVC-days vs no TPN, 7.5 CVC-associated BSIs per 1,000 CVC-days; P = .006). Among patients not receiving TPN, there was an increase in the risk of CVC-associated BSI in patients cared for by “float” nurses for more than 60% of the duration of the CVC. In multivariable analysis, risk factors for CVC-associated BSIs were the use of TPN in non-antimicrobial-impregnated CVCs (P = .0001), patient cared for by a float nurse for more than 60% of CVC-days (P = .0019), no antibiotics administered to the patient within 48 hours of insertion (P = .0001), and patient unarousable for 70% or more of the duration of the CVC (P = .0001). Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) were associated with a lower risk for CVC-associated BSI (P = .0001).
Antimicrobial-impregnated CVCs reduced the risk of CVC-associated BSI by 66% in patients receiving TPN. Limiting the use of float nurses for ICU patients with CVCs and the use of PICCs may also reduce the risk of CVC-associated BSI.
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