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In this paper, we build on data on officials of the Federal Reserve System, oral history repositories, and hitherto underresearched archival sources to unpack the tortuous path toward crafting an institutional and intellectual space for postwar economic analysis within the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. We show that growing attention to new macroeconomic research was a reaction to both mounting external criticisms against the Fed’s decision-making process and the spread of new macroeconomic theories and econometric techniques. We argue that the rise of the number of PhD economists working at the Fed is a symptom rather than a cause of this transformation. Key to our story are a handful of economists from the Board of Governors’ Division of Research and Statistics (DRS) who did not hold a PhD but envisioned their role as going beyond mere data accumulation and got involved in large-scale macroeconometric model building. We conclude that the divide between PhD and non-PhD economists may not be fully relevant to understand both the shift in the type of economics practiced at the Fed and the uses of this knowledge in the decision-making process. Equally important was the rift between different styles of economic analysis.
Between the 1950s and 1960s, a generation of Colombian drummers created a rich percussive lexicon. These musics circulated in Colombia and abroad under different names, cumbia being one of the most popular ones, we use the term 'música tropical sabanera' to group them. This chapter focuses on four drummers and analyses five rhythmic structures of música tropical sabanera to unveil the understudied yet deeply influential work of these Colombian drummers. Through their drumming practices, we trace the networks of music transnationalisms, media technologies, and commercial circuits that afforded the emergence of these musics. In a liminal space between the local and the transnational, the indigenous and the cosmopolitan, tdrumming practices we analyse unsettle the discursive predominance that the global north has had in the history of the drum kit and its aesthetic, technical, and musical developments in the twentieth century.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dementia has emerged as a significant societal issue and a global priority. The prevalence of dementia is rising more rapidly in low and middle income countries (LMIC) than in high income countries. Yet, knowledge of dementia risk factors is dominated by research from high income countries (HIC), which cannot be readily translated to LMIC. Latin American countries (LAC) have unique challenges related to dementia, including rapid aging population, high admixture degree and risk factors profile, which influence the prevalence and presentation of dementia. Several epidemiological studies during the past decade have shown a rapid increase of dementia in LAC, but the impact of genetic, protective and risk factors remain poorly understood. This research session will feature a series of short and engaging talks about new trends of dementia in the region and will answer key questions regarding dementia determinants and consequences in Hispanic populations. Participants will be first introduced to the aging process in LAC, prevalence and incidence of dementia within the region. The second presentation will report on genetics of Alzheimer disease in Hispanic populations. The third presenter will discuss the complexities of dementia multimorbidity and the impact of neuropsychiatric symptoms. The fourth presenter will discuss about Nationals and Regional Strategies to address dementia and reflects on recommendations and future directions for the region. All presentations will be based on findings from multiple research projects across the region. Furthermore, presenters will extended comparison to Non-Hispanics whites and Hispanics populations living in US, which allows cross countries/society comparisons. Overall, new information about dementia will be shared with the audience. Attendees will be able to identify the unique genetic and social determinants that drive AD in LAC. Recommendations will be given for preventive strategies tailored to LMIC. The findings to be shared will be essential for building evidence-based interventions that achieve the goals of the National Plan to Address Alzheimer’s Disease.
En las unidades domésticas de las comunidades chinamperas en Xochimilco del posclásico tardío, han sido localizadas un tipo de jarras que tienen como característica principal una aplicación en la parte frontal de la pieza que posiblemente representa una deidad. Con el propósito de entender su función y establecer elementos que permitan identificar estos objetos y su uso en otros contextos, proponemos estudiar estas piezas mediante métodos diferentes a los de los análisis formales tradicionales. Este trabajo expone los resultados de los estudios de residuos químicos impregnados en materiales porosos (spot test) y análisis de gránulos de almidón de 27 muestras obtenidas en 26 ejemplares de jarras efigie procedentes de tres sitios al sur de la cuenca de México. Los resultados indican que fueron enriquecidas con fosfatos, residuos proteicos, carbohidratos, y ácidos grasos, mientras que los almidones recuperados indican una presencia importante de maíz, y en menor medida, de camote, chile, y dioscórea. Basado en lo anterior, en sus contextos de procedencia y en la identificación de las deidades representadas, proponemos que estas jarras contenían bebidas de maíz y que fueron utilizadas en ceremonias domésticas dedicadas a la agricultura—como la fiesta de Huey Tozoztli, entre otras—del calendario mexica.
Among schizophrenic patients, prevalence of non-compliance is 25-40%, and it is the most important factor for relapse and bad outcome. MEMS provides of a more precise tool for compliance monitoring than other systems.
1. To evaluate compliance in schizophrenic outpatients and its relationship with clinical and psychopathological variables. 2. To evaluate the degree of agreement between compliance estimated by psychiatrist, family and patients with ‘real’ compliance. 3. To evaluate psychopathological differences between patients treated with oral antipsychotics (APs) and long-acting injectable (LAI) or depot APs.
Data concerning clinical variables, psychopathology (insight, psychotic, negative and general psychopathology symptoms), and compliance with treatment (information reported by psychiatrist, caregiver and patient) are recorded. In patients treated with LAI/depot APs, reasons for instauration is also recorded. Compliance of oral APs is evaluated through MEMS, with a follow-up period of three months. Statistical analysis will be performed with the appropriate tests (Pearson's correlation coefficient, T-Student tests and ANOVA test).
To date, 106 patients have been recruited. 77 patients are treated with oral APs (with or without LAI/depot APs) and 29 are receiving only LAI/depot APs. The reasons of instauration of treatment with LAI/depot APs was confirmed non-compliance (24 pat.), suspected non-compliance (3 pat.) and ‘posological comfort’ (2 pat.).
To date, few studies have investigated compliance in schizophrenic patients through MEMS. Identification of variables related to non-compliance seems very relevant in order to establish preventive strategies.
Abstract Dialectical Frameworks (ADFs) are argumentation frameworks where each node is associated with an acceptance condition. This allows us to model different types of dependencies as supports and attacks. Previous studies provided a translation from Normal Logic Programs (NLPs) to ADFs and proved the stable models semantics for a normal logic program has an equivalent semantics to that of the corresponding ADF. However, these studies failed in identifying a semantics for ADFs equivalent to a three-valued semantics (as partial stable models and well-founded models) for NLPs. In this work, we focus on a fragment of ADFs, called Attacking Dialectical Frameworks (ADF+s), and provide a translation from NLPs to ADF+s robust enough to guarantee the equivalence between partial stable models, well-founded models, regular models, stable models semantics for NLPs and respectively complete models, grounded models, preferred models, stable models for ADFs. In addition, we define a new semantics for ADF+s, called L-stable, and show it is equivalent to the L-stable semantics for NLPs.
This study examined the relationship between executive functions (EFs) and school performance in primary and secondary school students aged 8 to 13 years (N = 146, M = 10.4, 45.8% girls). EFs were evaluated using the Trail Making Test (TMT), Verbal Fluency (VF), and the Stroop Test. Students’ GPAs and teachers’ assessment of academic skills were used to measure school performance. To evaluate the students’ social behavior, participants were asked to rate all their classmates’ prosocial behavior and nominate three students with whom they preferred to do school activities; teachers also provided evaluations of students’ social skills. EF measures explained 41% (p = .003, f2 = .694) of variability in school performance and 29% (p = .005, f2 = .401) of variance in social behavior in primary school students. The predictive power of EFs was found to be lower for secondary school students, although the TMT showed significant prediction and explained 13% (p = .004, f2 = .149) of variance in school performance and 15% (p = .008, f2 = .176) in peer ratings of prosocial behavior. This paper discusses the relevance of EFs in the school environment and their different predictive power in primary and secondary school students.
In two experiments (161 participants in total), we investigated how current mood
influences processing styles (global vs. local). Participants watched a video of
a bank robbery before receiving a positive, negative or neutral induction, and
they performed two tasks: a face-recognition task about the bank robber as
global processing measure, and a spot-the-difference task using neutral pictures
(Experiment-1) or emotional scenes (Experiment-2) as local processing measure.
Results showed that positive mood induction favoured a global processing style,
enhancing participants’ ability to correctly identify a face even
when they watched the video before the mood-induction. This shows that, besides
influencing encoding processes, mood state can be also related to retrieval
processes. On the contrary, negative mood induction enhanced a local processing
style, making easier and faster the detection of differences between nearly
identical pictures, independently of their valence. This dissociation supports
the hypothesis that current mood modulates processing through activation of
different cognitive styles.
This study explored the predictive power of effortful control (EC) on empathy, academic performance, and social competence in adolescents. We obtained self-report measures of EC and dispositional empathy in 359 students (197 girls and 162 boys) aged between 12 and 14 years. Each student provided information about the prosocial behavior of the rest of his/her classmates and completed a sociogram. At the end of the school year, we calculated the mean grade of each student and the teacher responsible for each class completed a questionnaire on the academic skills of his/her students. The study confirmed the existence of a structural equation model (SEM) in which EC directly predicted academic performance and social competence. Additionally, empathic concern partially mediated the effect of EC on social competence. Finally, social competence significantly predicted academic performance. The article discusses the practical applications of the model proposed.
A description of a specimen of Cynoscion nebulosus caught in the Spanish waters of the Gulf of Cadiz, in the north-east Atlantic is presented. This is the first record of this species at this longitude.
Farmers around the world are concerned about the effects of human-induced salinity on crop yield and quality. Therefore, researchers are actively testing wild relatives of cultivated plants to identify candidates to improve crop performance under salt stress. A study was conducted to understand the effects of salt stress (Sodium chloride, NaCl) on cultivated tomato species (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme L.) and a wild tomato relative (Solanum chilense Dun.) from the Northern part of Chile. Plants were cultivated hydroponically under controlled environmental conditions for 112 days with nutrient solution containing 0 mM (3 dS m−1), 40 mM (6 dS m−1) and 80-mM (9 dS m−1) NaCl. Salt stress reduced the shoot biomass in S. lycopersicum but not in S. chilense. Both species were able to maintain the leaf water content; however, the cultivated S. lycopersicum showed osmotic adjustment, while S. chilense did not. Salt stress reduced the total fruit yield in S. lycopersicum based on a decrease in the mean fruit weight, but it had no impact on the number of fruits per plant. In contrast, salt stress had no significant impact on the fruit yield in S. chilense. Salt stress increased the total soluble solids content in S. lycopersicum and the titratable acidity in S. chilense. It was concluded that S. chilense displays a contrasting behaviour in response to prolonged exposure to moderate salinity compared with S. lycopersicum, and that this related species could be an interesting plant for breeding purposes.
We present a multiwavelength photometric analysis of the innermost (3×3 kpc2) Globular Clusters (GCs) of M87. Their Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) were built with J and Ks imaging obtained with NaCo at the VLT, along with HST UV-optical archival data. Using both Galatic GC templates and stellar population models, we derived ages (> 10 Gyr) and metallicities ([Fe/H]~ −0.7) for these clusters (e.g: Cohen et al. 1998). These GCs have lower metallicities than its host galaxy. This agrees with the idea that the GC population formed earlier than the bulk of the stars.
Congenital cardiac diseases are the most frequent congenital malformations. In adult patients, the mineralisation of the aorta due to cardiovascular disease is very common, but vascular mineralisation in paediatric cardiopathies is a topic less studied. This study shows that children with a complex congenital cardiopathy show a high degree of vascular mineralisation in the ascending aorta. This can be part of the cardiac failure pathophysiology due to congenital cardiopathies.
The aim of this study was to determine the presence and degree of vascular mineralisation in samples of the ascending and descending aorta of children with complex congenital cardiopathies.
We conducted a cross-sectional study.
We obtained 34 vascular tissues from the autopsies of 17 children with congenital cardiac disease.
We used a scanning electron microscope with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in order to analyse the vascular tissues.
The amount of minerals was two times higher in the ascending aorta than in the descending aorta of children with congenital cardiac disease.
The study provides evidence that vascular mineralisation can start at an early age, and that it is higher in the ascending aorta than in the descending aorta.
Background: This is the first study to investigate the associations between chronic health conditions of older people and their impact on co-resident psychological morbidity using population-based samples in low and middle income countries (LAMICs).
Methods: Single-phase cross-sectional catchment area surveys were undertaken in urban sites in Cuba, Dominican Republic and Venezuela, and in rural and urban catchment areas in Mexico, Peru, India and China. All residents aged 65 years and over were interviewed with a co-resident key informant. Exposures were structured clinical diagnoses (10/66 and DSM-IV dementia and ICD-10 depression), self-reported diagnosis (stroke) and physical impairments. Mediating variables were dependence and disability (WHODAS 2.0), and the outcome was co-resident psychological morbidity assessed using SRQ-20.
Results: Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate the prevalence ratios (PRs) for the associations between health conditions and psychological morbidity in each site, and meta-analysis was used to pool the estimates. 11,988 pairs comprising a participant and a co-resident informant were included in the analysis. After meta-analysis, independent effects were noted for depression (PR2.11; 95% CI 1.82–2.45), dementia (PR 1.98; 95% CI 1.72–2.28), stroke (PR 1.42; 95% CI 1.17–1.71) and physical impairments (PR 1.17; 95% CI 1.13–1.21). The effects were partly mediated through disability and dependence. The mean population attributable fraction of total chronic conditions was 30.1%.
Conclusion: The prevalence of co-resident psychological morbidity is higher among co-residents of older people with chronic conditions. This effect was prominent for, but not confined to, depression and dementia. Attention needs to be directed to chronic conditions.
Spatial distribution and species diversity of Cephalopoda caught in ARSA bottom trawl
surveys were studied out during two different seasons (autumn and spring) in the Gulf of
Cadiz (Spain) from 2000 to 2007. Species composition of cephalopod assemblages was
analysed, using both clustering analyses and non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis
(nMDS). Spatial distribution of the assemblages identified and abundance of the main
species were mapped with Surfer 8.0 software, using kriging as the geostatistical gridding
method. A total of 35 cephalopod species belonging to 6 families were found at depths
between 20 and 700 m. In each season, Sepiolidae was the most abundant family in terms of
number of species, followed by Octopodidae. The species richness increased up to 100–120 m
depth, where it reached the maximum value. From 120 m, the species richness decreased
progressively with depth. In spring, the species with the highest occurrence was
Eledone moschata (34%) and in autumn it was Alloteuthis media
(70%). In both seasons, the most abundant species in terms of weight was
Octopus vulgaris, while Alloteuthis media showed the
highest yields in terms of numbers. Most species showed wide bathymetric ranges,
especially in autumn. Three different assemblages were found in both seasons during the
time period analysed (although 2003 and 2006 were not included in the cluster analysis):
shelf assemblage (20–160 m), deep shelf/upper slope assemblage (100–350 m) and middle
slope assemblage (320–700 m). The specific composition of these three assemblages was
similar between spring and autumn and an overlap could be observed between them, mainly in
the two continental shelf groups: shelf and deep shelf/upper slope assemblages.
Alloteuthis media and Alloteuthis subulata were the
most abundant species in the shelf assemblage as well as in the deep shelf/upper slope
assemblage. In the middle slope assemblage, Illex coindetii was the most
abundant species. The assemblages and their spatial distributions could be largely related
to a combination of physical and biological factors and their interactions.