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The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (PLWHA) in Taiwan. PLWHA were identified from the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control HIV Surveillance System between 2000 and 2014. To examine the effect of active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on CVD incidence, incidence densities and standardised incidence rates (SIRs) of CVD were calculated after stratifying PLWHA by HAART. Of 26 272 PLWHA (mean age, 32.3 years) identified, 73.4% received HAART. Compared with general population, SIRs (95% confidence interval) were higher for incident coronary artery disease (1.11 (1.04–1.19)), percutaneous coronary intervention (1.32 (1.18–1.47)), coronary artery bypass surgery (1.47 (1.29–1.66)), sudden cardiac death (3.01 (2.39–3.73)), heart failure (1.50 (1.31–1.70)) and chronic kidney disease (1.95 (1.81–2.10)), but was lower for incident atrial fibrillation (0.53 (0.37–0.73)). Considering the effect of HAART on incident CVD, the SIRs for all-cause, ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke were higher in PLWHA who did not receive HAART, but were lower in PLWHA who received HAART. PLWHA had higher risks of incident coronary artery disease, percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass surgery, sudden cardiac death, heart failure and chronic kidney disease. HAART reduces risks of incident CVD in PLWHA.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of β-conglycinin and soya isoflavones on diabetic nephropathy (DN). DN was induced by an intravenous injection of streptozotocin (25 mg/kg) in spontaneously hypertensive rats. DN rats were divided into a non-diabetic group (C, control group) and three DN groups (D, DN with control diet; B, DN+control diet with one-eighth of casein replaced by β-conglycinin as the protein source; and I, DN+control diet with 0·01 % soya isoflavones). After a 4-week experimental period, we found that fasting blood sugar and plasma and kidney advanced glycation end product levels and 24 h urinary protein excretion of the B group were significantly lower than those of the D group and insulin sensitivity and nephrin expression of the B group were significantly higher than those of the D group. In addition, systolic blood pressure, angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, angiotensin II level and plasma TAG level of the B group were significantly lower than those of the D group, whereas only the levels of plasma TAG and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances of the I group were lower than those of the D group. In conclusion, β-conglycinin may be beneficial for retarding DN progression and this effect cannot be completely explained by its isoflavone content.