To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
There is limited evidence on the interaction by alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH1B) (rs1229984) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) (rs671) regarding the associations of alcohol and a methyl diet (low folate and high alcohol intake) with cancer risk, partly because of rare polymorphisms in Western populations.
In a case–control study, we estimated the ORs and 95 % CIs to evaluate the associations of ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes with colorectal cancer (CRC) and the joint association between methyl diets and ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms with CRC risk using logistic regression models.
A hospital-based case–control study.
In total, 1001 CRC cases and 899 cancer-free controls admitted to two university hospitals.
We found that alcohol intake increased the risk of CRC; OR (95 % CI) was 2·02 (1·41, 2·87) for ≥60 g/d drinkers compared with non-drinkers (Ptrend < 0·001). The associations for two polymorphisms with CRC were not statistically significant. However, we found a potential interaction of ALDH2 with methyl diets and CRC. We observed a 9·08-fold (95 % CI 1·93, 42·60) higher risk of CRC for low-methyl diets compared with high-methyl diets among individuals with an A allele of ALDH2, but the association was not apparent among those with ALDH2 GG (Pinteraction = 0·02).
Our data support the evidence that gene–methyl diet interactions may be involved in CRC risk in East Asian populations, showing that a low-methyl diet increased the risk of CRC among individuals with an A allele of ALDH2.
To investigate the impacts of depression screening, diagnosis and treatment on major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Prospective cohort study including a nested 24-week randomised clinical trial for treating depression was performed with 5–12 years after the index ACS. A total of 1152 patients recently hospitalised with ACS were recruited from 2006 to 2012, and were divided by depression screening and diagnosis at baseline and 24-week treatment allocation into five groups: 651 screening negative (N), 55 screening positive but no depressive disorder (S), 149 depressive disorder randomised to escitalopram (E), 151 depressive disorder randomised to placebo (P) and 146 depressive disorder receiving medical treatment only (M).
Cumulative MACE incidences over a median 8.4-year follow-up period were 29.6% in N, 43.6% in S, 40.9% in E, 53.6% in P and 59.6% in M. Compared to N, screening positive was associated with higher incidence of MACE [adjusted hazards ratio 2.15 (95% confidence interval 1.63–2.83)]. No differences were found between screening positive with and without a formal depressive disorder diagnosis. Of those screening positive, E was associated with a lower incidence of MACE than P and M. M had the worst outcomes even compared to P, despite significantly milder depressive symptoms at baseline.
Routine depression screening in patients with recent ACS and subsequent appropriate treatment of depression could improve long-term cardiac outcomes.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether a perceived person-centered nursing home environment has a direct relationship with nursing home adjustment and life satisfaction, and whether a perceived person-centered nursing home environment has an indirect relationship with life satisfaction through improved nursing home adjustment.
203 nursing home residents who were able to read and speak English and were physically and cognitively able to respond to questionnaires were included in this study. Data were collected from six nursing homes in the Midwestern US.
Higher levels of a perceived person-centered nursing home environment had a significantly direct relationship with increased life satisfaction of residents (β = 0.35), and this relationship was mediated by residents’ improved nursing home adjustment (β = 0.10). In-depth exploration using sub-domains of the main variables demonstrated that “safety” and “everydayness” of a person-centered nursing home environment were directly related to higher levels of life satisfaction (β = 0.15 and β = 0.16, respectively); and “everydayness” was related to three sub-domains of nursing home adjustment: better “relationship development,” “acceptance of the new residence” (β = 0.32 and β = 0.24, respectively), and lower “depressed mood” (β = 0.05). The positive relationship between “everydayness” and life satisfaction was partially mediated by the “relationship development” sub-domain of nursing home adjustment (β = 0.07).
The findings provide new evidence for the positive association between person-centered care and nursing home adjustment. The findings also provide insights into the mechanism through which the specific sub-domains of person-centered care and nursing home adjustment operate in the path model.
In this study, we used a stress test to investigate endocrinological and subjective stress responses of 8- to 14-year-old children with internalizing or externalizing disorders and healthy controls. The sample (N = 170) consisted of clinical and community children. Parents were given a diagnostic interview to diagnose their children's psychiatric condition. We measured saliva cortisol and subjectively experienced arousal in children before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for Children. Children also rated their performance immediately after the stress test, and 1 hr later they rated their positive and negative thoughts about this stressful event. Children with internalizing or externalizing disorders exhibited a blunted cortisol response compared to healthy controls. Depressed children rated their test performance lower and reported more negative thoughts after the test in comparison to healthy controls, anxious children reported more arousal before and after the task, and children with externalizing disorders reported more positive thoughts. In regression analyses, cortisol and subjective stress responses were both predictive of psychiatric disorders. The study extends previous work on the relation between psychiatric disorders and children's stress responses to an experimentally induced stress task by including a broad range of psychiatric disorders and by integrating endocrinological and subjective stress responses.
This study aimed to describe the levels of social engagement and to examine the relationship between the nursing home scale groups and social engagement in nursing homes in South Korea.
A total of 314 residents were randomly selected from rosters provided by 10 nursing homes located in three metropolitan areas in South Korea. The outcome variable was social engagement measured by the Revised Index of Social Engagement (RISE), and the key independent variable was the nursing home scale (small, medium, and large). Individual factors (age, gender, activities of daily living and cognitive function, and depressive symptoms) and organizational factors (location, ownership, and staffing levels) were controlled in the model as covariates. Multilevel logistic regression was used in this study.
About half of the residents (46%) in this study were not socially engaged in the nursing home (RISE=0) where they resided. Controlling for individual- and organizational-level factors, the nursing home facility size was a significant factor to predict the likelihood of residents’ social engagement, with that the residents in large-scale nursing homes being less likely to be socially engaged than those in medium-scale nursing homes (odds ratio = 0.457; p-value = 0.005).
This study supports evidence from previous studies that smaller-scale nursing homes are likely to provide more person-centered care compared to larger-scale nursing homes. Subsequent quality studies are needed to examine how the mechanisms for how smaller-scale nursing homes can enhance residents’ social engagement in terms of care delivery processes.
The present article aimed to evaluate the impact of congenital Müllerian anomalies (MA) on twin pregnancy after 24 gestational weeks in Korean women. All records of twin pregnancies in a large maternity hospital in Korea between January 2005 and July 2013 were analyzed. Patients with monochorionic monoamniotic (MCMA) twins, non-Korean patients, patients with twins delivered prior to 24 gestational weeks, and patients with miscarriage of one fetus or intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) before 24 gestational weeks were excluded from data analysis. In total, 1,422 women with twin pregnancy were eligible for data analysis, including 17 (1.2%) who had a known congenital MA (septate uterus, bicornuate uterus, arcuate uterus, and unicornuate uterus). Except for the mode of conception, baseline demographics were similar between women with MA and those without MA. No significant differences were found in pregnancy outcomes of gestational age at delivery (p = .86), birth weight of smaller and larger twins (p = .54 and p = .65), and number of twins with birth weight <5th percentile for gestational age (p = .43).The rates of obstetrical complications such as pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), placenta previa, cerclage, IUFD, and postpartum hemorrhage were not significantly different between the two groups either. We concluded that the presence of congenital MA may not increase obstetrical risks in outcomes of pregnancy of twins delivered after 24 gestational weeks.
Although late-life anxiety occurs frequently and is associated with higher morbidity, few longitudinal studies have been concerned with the evaluation thereof. We investigated the prevalence, incidence, and persistence of anxiety and related factors over a two-year period in community-dwelling Korean elderly individuals.
A total of 1,204 Korean elderly individuals were evaluated at baseline, and 909 were followed up two years later. The community version of the Geriatric Mental State Schedule was used to estimate anxiety at both baseline and follow-up interviews. We defined “prevalence” as the rate of anxiety symptoms (for both anxiety cases and sub-threshold anxiety) at baseline; “incidence” as the rate of anxiety symptoms at follow-up in those without baseline anxiety symptoms; and “persistence” as the rate of anxiety symptoms at follow-up in those with baseline anxiety symptoms. Associations between various covariates and anxiety status were examined using multivariate logistic regression models.
The prevalence, incidence, and persistence of anxiety symptoms were 38.1%, 29.3%, and 41.1%, respectively. Prevalent anxiety symptoms were associated independently with female, rented housing, more stressful life event and medical illness, physical inactivity, depression, insomnia, and lower cognitive function. Incident anxiety symptoms were predicted by older age, female gender, depression, and insomnia; persistent anxiety symptoms were predicted by older age, more medical illness, and baseline depression.
Since depression was associated with prevalent, incident, and persistent anxiety symptoms, effective detection and management thereof is important in older adults to reduce anxiety. Furthermore, preventive collaborative care should be considered, particularly for older, female, insomniac patients.
To examine the association of food insufficiency with dietary intake and eating and health behaviours.
A cross-sectional study.
Data were obtained from a secondary source, the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010–2012).
The sample size consisted of 15 603 adults over 19 years of age (8898 households).
Significant differences in socio-economic factors were observed according to food insufficiency level (P<0·05), but BMI was similar among groups. Regarding macronutrients, lower protein intake and higher carbohydrate intake were found in the severely food-insufficient group, but we found no association with fat intake. Regarding micronutrients, Ca, Fe, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin niacin and vitamin C intakes were negatively associated with food insufficiency level (Ptrend<0·05). Consumption of different food groups, such as meat, fish, eggs and beans, vegetables and fruits, was significantly lower as food insufficiency level decreased after controlling for all possible variables; food group consumption also differed by sex. Overall eating and health behaviours were poorer in the mildly and severely food-insufficient groups, who received more food assistance but less nutritional education.
Our results showed that dietary intake as well as eating and health behaviours are adversely associated with food insufficiency. These findings suggest that specific strategies to help food-insufficient individuals should be developed in order to improve their dietary quality and health status.
This study aims to examine the longitudinal effects of a small-scale nursing home model on the change rates of psychological outcomes by comparing green house (GH) and traditional nursing home residents.
A total of 242 residents (93 GH and 149 traditional home residents) who resided at the home least 6 months from admission. Four minimum dataset assessments every six months from admission were included. The main psychological outcomes were depressive mood, and social engagement. The main independent variable was the facility type that the resident resided in: a GH or traditional unit. Age, gender, ADL function, and cognitive function at admission were controlled in the model. A zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) growth curve model was utilized to compare change rates of two psychological outcomes between the two groups taking into account many zero counts of two outcome measures.
A rate of increase in depressive symptoms for GH home residents was higher than that of traditional home residents (β = 0.135, p-value = 0.025). GH home residents had a lower rate of increase of the probability of “not being socially engaged” over time compared to traditional home residents (β = −0.274, p-value = 0.010).
The GH nursing home model had a longitudinal effect on increasing the probability of residents’ social engagement over time, but also increasing the recognition of depressive symptoms compared to traditional nursing homes.
This study aimed to assess the prevalence, incidence, and persistence of suicidal ideation (SI), and to investigate the psychosocial factors associated with these.
A total of 1,204 community dwelling elderly adults aged 65 years or older were evaluated at baseline, 909 (75%) of whom were followed two years later. The presence of SI was identified using the questions from the community version of the Geriatric Mental State (GMS) diagnostic schedule (GMS B3) at both baseline and follow-up interviews. Baseline measures included demographic status, years of education, rural/urban residence, accommodation, past and current occupation, monthly income, marital status, stressful life events, social support deficits, number of physical illnesses, severity of pain, physical activity, disability, depressive symptoms, anxiety, insomnia, cognitive function, alcohol consumption, and smoking.
Baseline SI prevalence, follow-up incidence (SI rate at follow-up of 805 elderly subjects who did not have SI at baseline), and persistence (SI rate at follow-up of 104 elderly subjects who had SI at baseline) were 11.5%, 9.6%, and 36.5%, respectively. Baseline SI was independently associated with no current employment, lower monthly income, stressful life events, more severe pain, presence of disability, depressive symptoms, and smoking. Incident SI was independently predicted by baseline unmarried status, social support deficit, severe pain, presence of depressive symptoms, and smoking. Persistent SI was independently predicted by baseline stressful life events and depressive symptoms.
Depressive symptoms were independently associated with prevalent, incident, and persistent SI, but other predictors varied according to incidence and persistence outcomes.
The electroluminescent characteristics of blue organic light-emitting diodes(BOLEDs) were fabricated with single emitting layer using host-dopant system and doped charge carrier transport layers. The structure of the high efficiency BOLED device was; NPB(600Å)/NPB:BCzVBi-7%(100Å)/ADN:BCzVBi-7%(300Å)/BAlq:BCzVBi-7%(100Å)/BAlq(200Å)/Liq(20Å)/Al(1200Å) to optimize probability of exciton generation by doping BCzVBi in emitting layer and hole/electron transport layers(HTL/ETL) as well. Luminance and luminous efficiency of BOLED doped BCzVBi in EML and HTL/ETL improved from 10090 cd/m2 at 9.5V and 6.44 cd/A at 4.0V to 13190 cd/m2 at 9.5V and 7.64 cd/A at 4.0V about 30% and 18%, respectively, with CIE coordinates of (0.14, 0.17) comparing to BOLED doped BCzVBi in EML only
In this study, we fabricated blue OLEDs with quantum well structure (QWS) using four different blue emissive materials such as DPVBi, ADN and DPASN, and BAlq as QWS material. Conventional QWS blue OLEDs used to be composed of emissive layer and charge blocking layer with lower HOMO-LUMO energy level, but we designed triple emitting layer for more significant hole-electron recombination in EML and a wider region of exciton generation as forming QWS spontaneously. The structure of triple emitting layered blue OLED is ITO / NPB(700 Å) / X(100 Å) / BAlq(100 Å) /X (100 Å) / Bphen(300 Å) / Liq(20 Å) / Al(1200 Å) (X= DPVBi, ADN, DPASN). HOMO-LUMO energy levels of DPVBi, ADN, DPASN and BAlq were 2.8-5.9, 2.6-5.6, 2.3-5.2 and 2.9-5.9 eV, respectively. The maximum luminous efficiency was 5.32 cd/A at 3.5 V in a blue OLED with DPASN / BAlq / DPASN QWS.
In this study, we demonstrate blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with a dual emitting layer (EML) configuration consisting of fluorescent and phosphorescent emitting materials. We investigated the influence of dopants on the electrical and optical characteristics of devices when controlling the fluorescent dopant concentration. The current density and luminance of device B doped with 12wt% BCzVBi was 141.6 mA/cm2 and 6582 cd/m2 at 10V, respectively. In addition, a maximum luminous efficiency of 8.11 cd/A, was achieved from device B. The corresponding Commission Internationale de l’E´ clairage (CIExy) coordinates of device D doped with 5wt% BCzVBi were (0.143, 0.255) at 6V.
Stream development can generate environmental changes that impact fish communities. In temperate streams, the distribution of fish species is associated with environmental gradients. To analyze the relevant factors, large-scale exploration is required. Thus, to evaluate the distribution patterns of fish in Korea, sampling was conducted on a national scale at 720 sites over a 6-week period in 2009. A total of 124 fish species in 27 families were identified; Zacco platypus and Zacco koreanus of the Cyprinidae were the dominant and subdominant species, respectively. Of the species found, 46 (37.1%) were endemic and 4 (3.2%) exotic; of the latter, Micropterus salmoides and Lepomis macrochirus were widely distributed. Upon canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), both altitude and biological oxygen demand (BOD) were highly correlated with CCA axes 1 and 2, respectively. This explained 62.5% of the species–environment relationship. Altitude and stream order were longitudinally related to species distribution. The numbers of both total and endemic species gradually increased as streams grew in size to the fourth–fifth-order, and decreased in sixth-order, streams. Overall, fish communities were stable throughout the entire watershed, whereas some species showed site-specific occurrence patterns due to the paleogeomorphological characteristics of Korean peninsula. However, various anthropogenic activities may negatively affect fish communities. Therefore, both short- and long-term sustainable management strategies are required to conserve native fish fauna.
We investigated the pressure dependence of the inductive coupled plasma (ICP) oxidation on the electrical characteristics of the thin oxide films. Activation energies and electron temperatures with different pressures were estimated. To demonstrate the pressure effect on the plasma oxide quality, simple N type metal-oxide-semiconductor (NMOS) transistors were fabricated and investigated in a few electrical properties. At higher pressure than 200mTorr, plasma oxide has a slightly higher on-current and a lower interfacial trap density. The on-current gain seems to be related to the field mobility increase and the lower defective interface to the electron temperature during oxidation.
Analytical electron microscopy (AEM) was used to examine the initial interfacial reaction layers between a eutectic Sn–3.5Ag solder and an electroless nickel-immersion gold-plated (ENIG) Cu substrate during reflow at 255 °C for 1 s. AEM confirmed that a thick upper (Au,Ni)Sn2 layer and a thin Ni3Sn4 layer had formed through the reaction between the solder and ENIG. The amorphous electroless Ni(P) plated layer transformed into two P-rich Ni layers. One is a crystallized P-rich Ni layer, and the other is an intermediate state P-rich Ni layer before the crystallization. The crystallized P-rich layer consisted of Ni2P and Ni12P5. A thin Ni2P layer had formed underneath the Ni3Sn4 layer and is believed to be a predecessor of the Ni2SnP ternary phase. A Ni12P5 phase was observed beneath the Ni2P thin layer. In addition, nanocrystalline Ni was found to coexist with the amorphous Ni(P) phase in the intermediate state P-rich Ni layer.
Laser fusion requires very high energy/power output with high
repetition rate over 10 Hz, which is very difficult with the current laser
technologies. However, the recent research work on the phase controlling
of the stimulated Brillouin scattering wave enables the realization of
this kind of laser fusion driver. The recent progress of controlling the
phase has been successfully demonstrated by the self-generated density
modulation method proposed by one of the authors (Kong). Nevertheless, it
showed a long-term fluctuation of the phase because of the long-term
fluctuation of the density of the SBS medium due to the thermal
fluctuation. This long-term thermal fluctuation is inevitable a fact in
nature. The authors used a specially designed stabilizing system for the
phase controlling system, which has the PZT control of the mirror for
phase controlling SBS-PCM (the so-called feedback mirror). This system
stabilizes the phase controlling system very well for more than 1 h. This
technique will help the laser fusion driver to be realized sooner than
expected. In addition, we propose a similar scheme to be applied to the
ultra-fast pulse laser system, which must operate at high repetition rate
for the laser fusion energy power plant.