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This chapter describes the evolution, characteristics, methodology, and practice of action research with particular attention to the importance of critical reflection. It examines the characteristics of action research with particular attention to the importance of critical reflection in the inquiry process. The chapter proceeds with a summary of the methods and approaches used in designing and implementing action research. It describes examples of action research to suggest the diversity of topics and analytic perspectives it encompasses. All studies reflect the voices of teacher-researchers on the multiple interpretations and practices of action research. They address the relationships between research, knowledge creation, and action that intertwine personal, professional, and political concerns. The studies are organized by three orientations to action research: professional orientation: knowledge production and professional development; personal orientation: self-awareness and identity; and political orientation: social change.