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Fabrication of nanoperforated TiO2 thin films (NP-TiO2) on various substrates utilizing evaporation-induced self-assembly has been widely reported during recent years. For many applications, such as solar cells and gas sensors, it would be beneficial if the active material could be deposited onto a desired area or in the form of a pattern or array. In this study, inkjet printing was successfully used to produce NP-TiO2 at both ambient temperature and 60 °C. Especially for intermediate drop spacings (40 and 50 µm), millimeter-sized homogeneous NP-TiO2 patches were obtained with similar NP structure as those being processed by dip coating and drop casting. Compared to ambient temperature, inkjet printing at 60 °C provides a narrower height distribution of the NP structures of about 5 nm. Compared to dip coating and drop casting, inkjet printing enables the deposition of the ink onto target areas, thus enabling the fabrication of microscale arrays and other patterned structures.
We have used phase-separated poly(3-hexyltiophene) (P3HT)/poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) blends to fabricate low-voltage ion-modulated transistors on a rough paper substrate. The semiconductor and insulator are mixed together in a solution and spin casted onto the paper substrate. Owing to their different solubilities and surface energies the P3HT and PLLA will phase separate vertically during the spinning process creating a thin layer of semiconductor on top of the insulator. This thin semiconductor layer, difficult to achieve by other means on an absorbing paper substrate, creates faster ion-modulated transistors. Using this approach we have created ring-oscillators on paper oscillating at 5 Hz.
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