To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The objectives were to compare the evolution of dietary folate intake, to estimate the prevalence of folate inadequacy (POFI) and the contribution of food groups to folate intake (dietary folate plus folic acid from fortified foods) in two post-fortification periods in the Brazilian population, according to life stages, geographic regions and per capita income. Population-based study including representative data from the National Dietary Survey – Brazilian Household Budget Surveys (NDS-HBS) 2008–2009 and 2017–2018, with a total of 32 749 (2008–2009) and 44 744 (2017–2018) individuals aged ≥ 10 years old, excluding pregnant and lactating women. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the distributions of usual dietary folate intake. POFI was estimated according to estimated average requirement cut-off point method. After 10 years of the first NDS-HBS, POFI has increased in all sex-age groups, except for 10–13 years. POFI among women of reproductive age was around 30 and 40 % in 2008–2009 and 2017–2018. Higher POFI was observed in the North region. The top five food groups contributors to folate intake in Brazil were beans, breads, pasta and pizza, cakes and cookies and non-alcoholic beverages groups in both periods, differing in the rank order of the last two groups. Although being a country that has adopted mandatory folic acid flour fortification for almost two decades, increased POFI was observed in 2017–2018. This study brings significant scientific information, which can help understand folate dietary data in different contexts and consequently guide the approach for public health fortification strategies.
Currently, there are approximately 84 million smartphones in use in Brazil. The use of this technology facilitates the daily life of the individuals in the personal, social and professional scope. Therefore, we hypothesize that it can be used to assess and improve dietary intake. Thus, we intend to develop an application to assess meal quality from a photo taken by a smartphone, using artificial intelligence. For this, the machine should be trained to recognize which meal is healthy or unhealthy, and, as a first step, a meal quality index is necessary.
This study aims to develop a meal quality index, to be applied to photos of dishes from a main meal.
For the development of the index, it was considered the main recommendations established in the scientific literature and the “Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population”. The index includes nine components: 1- meat intake and/or meat substitute, 2- cooking method, 3- vegetables intake, 4- whole food intake, 5- food variety, 6- ultra-processed food intake, 7- fruits intake, 8- carbohydrates intake, 9- fat recipes and/or food. First, questions were elaborated and scored as 0 point (unhealthy answer) or 1 point (healthy answer). After, the meal photo was classified as “needs improvement” (< 4 points), good (> 5 e < 7 points) and very good (> 8 points). Each photo was assessed by two experts. Then, statistical analyses were performed considering Kappa (k) statistic to evaluate the agreement between the assessments by experts.
Data from 154 meal photos were assessed. We analyzed the % of agreement, k-value and significant agreement (p-value) for all index components and final classification, respectively: 1- meat intake and/or meat substitute, 64.94% and k = 0.2759 (p < 0.001); 2- cooking method, 81.82% and k = 0.5915 (p = 0.000); 3- vegetables intake, 77.27% and k = 0.5353 (p = 0.000); 4- whole food intake, 98.05% and k = -0.0087 (p = 0.545); 5- food variety, 79.22% and k = 0.5899 (p = 0.000); 6- ultra processed food intake, 76.62% and k = 0.4515 (p = 0.000); 7- fruits intake, 94.81% and k = 0.8494 (p = 0.000); 8- carbohydrates intake, 65.58% and k = 0.2960 (p = 0.000); 9- fat recipes and/or food, 73.38% and k = 0.4654 (p = 0.000); and final classification, 58.44% and k = 0.3218 (p = 0.000).
We verified a moderate and significant agreement for almost all index components using meal photo.
There is a growing research interest in determining whether changes in the global status of DNA methylation are related to the environment, in particular, to one-carbon metabolism. So, our aim was to investigate the effect of dietary methyl-group donor intake (methionine, folate, choline, betaine, vitamins B2, B6 and B12), biomarkers (total folate, unmetabolised folic acid (FA), 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, homocysteine, vitamins B6 and B12 concentrations) and genetic variants (polymorphisms involved in one-carbon metabolism) on global DNA methylation in a population exposed to mandatory flour fortification with FA. A cross-sectional study of health and living conditions was conducted among a representative sample of residents in São Paulo, Brazil. The mean of global DNA methylation was lower in young people than in adults and the elderly (P = 0·049). No differences between genotypes of polymorphism and global DNA methylation mean were identified. We observed that the increase in betaine intake led to an absolute change in percentage of DNA methylation (β = 0·0005, P = 0·024) using multiple regression. Betaine intake alone was associated with an absolute change in percentage of global DNA methylation. The study did not find an association between global DNA methylation and folate status even in a population exposed to mandatory flour fortification with FA.
The present study describes the procedure and approaches needed to adapt and harmonise the GloboDiet methodology, a computer- and interview-based 24 h dietary recall, for use in two Latin American pilot countries, Brazil and Mexico.
About seventy common and country-specific databases on foods, recipes, dietary supplements, quantification methods and coefficients were customised and translated following standardised guidelines, starting from existing Spanish and Portuguese versions.
Brazil and Mexico.
New subgroups were added into the existing common food classification together with new descriptors required to better classify and describe specific Brazilian and Mexican foods. Quantification methods were critically evaluated and adapted considering types and quantities of food consumed in these two countries, using data available from previous surveys. Furthermore, the photos to be used for quantification purposes were identified for compilation in country-specific but standardised picture booklets.
The completion of the customisation of the GloboDiet Latin America versions in these two pilot countries provides new insights into the adaptability of this dietary international tool to the Latin American context. The ultimate purpose is to enable dietary intake comparisons within and between Latin American countries, support building capacities and foster regional and international collaborations. The development of the GloboDiet methodology could represent a major benefit for Latin America in terms of standardised dietary methodologies for multiple surveillance, research and prevention purposes.
To assess Fe intake, calculate the prevalence of inadequate Fe intake and identify food contributors to Fe intake during 2003 and 2008 in a population-based study, reflecting before and after the mandatory fortification of flour with Fe.
Two cross-sectional population-based studies conducted in 2003 and 2008. Dietary intake was evaluated by 24 h recall and the Software for Intake Distribution Estimation (PC-SIDE) was used to estimate within-person variance and prevalence of inadequate Fe intake. The statistical analysis was conducted considering the complex survey design.
São Paulo, Brazil.
Adolescents, adults and elderly adults of both sexes, interviewed in 2003 (n 2386) and 2008 (n 1661).
The Fe intake mean increased in all populations in the post-fortification period. A reduction of over 90 % was observed in the prevalence of inadequate Fe intake among men for all age groups analysed. When evaluating women, despite the substantial reduction (over 63 %), prevalence of inadequate Fe intake remained high (34 %) in those aged 19–50 years. Major food contributors to Fe intake before fortification were beans, beef, vegetables and dairy. There was an alteration in the contributors in the post-fortification period, with bread, beef, beans and biscuits as main contributors.
The mandatory fortification with Fe significantly furthered the reduction in the prevalence of inadequacy, except among women of reproductive age, and changed the main contributors to this nutrient in the studied population. Therefore, monitoring of Fe addition in flour is essential to assess compliance to the fortified flour policy and to guarantee a safe Fe intake for all the population.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.