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We explored experiences and perceptions surrounding the Self-Stewardship Time-Out Program (SSTOP) intervention across implementation sites to improve antimicrobial use. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with Antibiotic Stewardship physicians and pharmacists, from which 5 key themes emerged. SSTOP may serve to achieve sustainable promotion of antibiotic use improvements.
Effective stewardship strategies such as an “antibiotic timeout” to encourage prescriber reflection on the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics are critical to reduce the threat of multidrug-resistant organisms. We sought to understand the facilitators and barriers of the implementation of the Antibiotic Self-Stewardship Timeout Program (SSTOP), which used a template note integrated into the electronic health record system to guide decision making regarding anti- methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) therapy after 3 days of hospitalization. We conducted interviews at 10 Veterans’ Affairs medical centers (VAMCs) during the preimplementation period (N = 16 antibiotic stewards) and postimplementation (N = 13 antibiotic stewards) ~12 months after program initiation. Preimplementation interviews focused on current stewardship programs, whereas postimplementation interviews addressed the implementation process and corresponding challenges. We also directly asked about the impact of COVID-19 on stewardship activities at each facility. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using consensus-based inductive and deductive coding. Codes were iteratively combined into barrier and facilitator groupings. Barriers identified in the preimplementation interviews included challenges with staffing, the difficulties of changing prescribing culture, and academic affiliates (eg, rotating physician trainees). Facilitators included intellectual support (eg, providers who understand the concept of stewardship), facility support, individual strengths of antibiotic stewards (eg, diplomacy, strong relationships with surgeons), and resources such as VA policies mandating stewardship. By the postimplementation phase, all sites reported a high volume of COVID-19 cases. Additional demands were placed on infectious disease providers who comprise the antibiotic stewardship teams, which complicated the implementation of SSTOP. Many barriers and facilitators mentioned were similar to those identified during preimplementation interviews. Staffing problems and specific providers not “getting it [stewardship activities]” continued, whereas facilitators centered around strong institutional support. Specific pandemic-related barriers included slow down or stoppage of stewardship activities including curbing of regular MRSA screening practices, halting weekly stewardship rounds, and delaying stewardship committee planning. Pandemic-specific staffing problems occurred due to the need for “all hands on deck” and challenges with staff working from home, as well as being pulled in multiple directions, (eg, writing COVID-19 policies). Furthermore, an increase in antibiotic use was also reported at sites during COVID-19 surges. Our findings indicate that SSTOP implementation met with barriers at most times; however, pandemic-specific barriers were particularly powerful. Sites with strong staffing resources were better equipped to deal with these challenges. Understanding how the program evolves with subsequent COVID-19 surges will be important to support the broad implementation of SSTOP.
To determine the impact of total household decolonization with intranasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine gluconate body wash on recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection among subjects with MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection.
Three-arm nonmasked randomized controlled trial.
Five academic medical centers in Southeastern Pennsylvania.
Adults and children presenting to ambulatory care settings with community-onset MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection (ie, index cases) and their household members.
Enrolled households were randomized to 1 of 3 intervention groups: (1) education on routine hygiene measures, (2) education plus decolonization without reminders (intranasal mupirocin ointment twice daily for 7 days and chlorhexidine gluconate on the first and last day), or (3) education plus decolonization with reminders, where subjects received daily telephone call or text message reminders.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Owing to small numbers of recurrent infections, this analysis focused on time to clearance of colonization in the index case.
Of 223 households, 73 were randomized to education-only, 76 to decolonization without reminders, 74 to decolonization with reminders. There was no significant difference in time to clearance of colonization between the education-only and decolonization groups (log-rank P=.768). In secondary analyses, compliance with decolonization was associated with decreased time to clearance (P=.018).
Total household decolonization did not result in decreased time to clearance of MRSA colonization among adults and children with MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection. However, subjects who were compliant with the protocol had more rapid clearance
To identify risk factors for recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization.
Prospective cohort study conducted from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2012.
Five adult and pediatric academic medical centers.
Subjects (ie, index cases) who presented with acute community-onset MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection.
Index cases and all household members performed self-sampling for MRSA colonization every 2 weeks for 6 months. Clearance of colonization was defined as 2 consecutive sampling periods with negative surveillance cultures. Recurrent colonization was defined as any positive MRSA surveillance culture after clearance. Index cases with recurrent MRSA colonization were compared with those without recurrence on the basis of antibiotic exposure, household demographic characteristics, and presence of MRSA colonization in household members.
The study cohort comprised 195 index cases; recurrent MRSA colonization occurred in 85 (43.6%). Median time to recurrence was 53 days (interquartile range, 36–84 days). Treatment with clindamycin was associated with lower risk of recurrence (odds ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.29–0.93). Higher percentage of household members younger than 18 was associated with increased risk of recurrence (odds ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00–1.02). The association between MRSA colonization in household members and recurrent colonization in index cases did not reach statistical significance in primary analyses.
A large proportion of patients initially presenting with MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection will have recurrent colonization after clearance. The reduced rate of recurrent colonization associated with clindamycin may indicate a unique role for this antibiotic in the treatment of such infection.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(7):786–793
A new species, Chaoborus sampsera, is described from male and female adults collected from Papua Province in western New Guinea, Indonesia. Based on leg banding, wing pigmentation, and possession of a median paramere sclerite in males, the new species belongs to the Chaoborus “pallidus” group of Colless. Chaoborus sampsera is distinguished from other species of the “pallidus” group by the scimitar-shaped parameres. Although relationships among these Chaoborus species are unclear, there are morphological characters that support the “pallidus” group.
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