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Intensity in adolescent romantic relationships was examined as a long-term predictor of higher adult blood pressure in a community sample followed from age 17 to 31 years. Romantic intensity in adolescence – measured via the amount of time spent alone with a partner and the duration of the relationship – was predicted by parents’ psychologically controlling behavior and was in turn found to predict higher resting adult systolic and diastolic blood pressure even after accounting for relevant covariates. The prediction to adult blood pressure was partially mediated via conflict in nonromantic adult friendships and intensity in adult romantic relationships. Even after accounting for these mediators, however, a direct path from adolescent romantic intensity to higher adult blood pressure remained. Neither family income in adolescence nor trait measures of personality assessed in adulthood accounted for these findings. The results of this study are interpreted both as providing further support for the view that adolescent social relationship qualities have substantial long-term implications for adult health, as well as suggesting a potential physiological mechanism by which adolescent relationships may be linked to adult health outcomes.
Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders have been increasingly recognised to form cognitive subgroups with differential levels of impairment. Using cluster analytical techniques, this study sought to identify cognitive clusters in a sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and examine clinical and developmental differences across the resultant groups.
In total, 105 FEP patients in the University of California Los Angeles Aftercare Research Program were assessed for cognition, symptoms and premorbid developmental adjustment. Hierarchical cluster analysis with Ward's method and squared Euclidean distance was conducted, confirmed by discriminant function analysis and optimised with k-means clustering. The stability of the solution was evaluated through split-sample (random, 80 and 70% samples) and alternate method (average linkage method) replication via Cohen's κ analysis. Controlling for multiple comparisons, one-way analysis of variances examined group differences in symptom severity and premorbid adjustment.
Three groups were identified: severely impaired (n = 27), moderately impaired (n = 41) and relatively intact (n = 37). There were no significant differences in symptom severity across the groups. Significant differences were observed for scholastic performance at three different developmental stages: childhood, early adolescence and late adolescence, with the relatively intact group demonstrating significantly better scholastic performance at all three stages than both the moderately impaired and severely impaired groups (who did not significantly differ from each other).
The findings add to growing evidence that cognitive clusters in FEP mirror that of later-stage schizophrenia. They also suggest that premorbid scholastic performance may not just be a risk factor for developing schizophrenia, but is also related to cognitive impairment severity and potentially to prognosis.
While studies suggest that nutritional supplementation may reduce aggressive behavior in children, few have examined their effects on specific forms of aggression. This study tests the primary hypothesis that omega-3 (ω-3), both alone and in conjunction with social skills training, will have particular post-treatment efficacy for reducing childhood reactive aggression relative to baseline.
In this randomized, double-blind, stratified, placebo-controlled, factorial trial, a clinical sample of 282 children with externalizing behavior aged 7–16 years was randomized into ω-3 only, social skills only, ω-3 + social skills, and placebo control groups. Treatment duration was 6 months. The primary outcome measure was reactive aggression collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, with antisocial behavior as a secondary outcome.
Children in the ω-3-only group showed a short-term reduction (at 3 and 6 months) in self-report reactive aggression, and also a short-term reduction in overall antisocial behavior. Sensitivity analyses and a robustness check replicated significant interaction effects. Effect sizes (d) were small, ranging from 0.17 to 0.31.
Findings provide some initial support for the efficacy of ω-3 in reducing reactive aggression over and above standard care (medication and parent training), but yield only preliminary and limited support for the efficacy of ω-3 in reducing overall externalizing behavior in children. Future studies could test further whether ω-3 shows promise in reducing more reactive, impulsive forms of aggression.
Struggles managing conflict and hostility in adolescent social relationships were examined as long-term predictors of immune-mediated inflammation in adulthood that has been linked to long-term health outcomes. Circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a marker of immune system dysfunction when chronically elevated, were assessed at age 28 in a community sample of 127 individuals followed via multiple methods and reporters from ages 13 to 28. Adult serum IL-6 levels were predicted across periods as long as 15 years by adolescents’ inability to defuse peer aggression and poor peer-rated conflict resolution skills, and by independently observed romantic partner hostility in late adolescence. Adult relationship difficulties also predicted higher IL-6 levels but did not mediate predictions from adolescent-era conflict struggles. Predictions were also not mediated by adult trait hostility or aggressive behavior, suggesting the unique role of struggles with conflict and hostility from others during adolescence. The implications for understanding the import of adolescent peer relationships for life span physical health outcomes are considered.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of food label nutrition colouring schemes in interaction with food category healthiness on consumers’ perceptions of food healthiness. Three streams of colour theory (colour attention, colour association and colour approach-avoidance) in interaction with heuristic processing theory provide consonant predictions and explanations for the underlying psychological processes.
A 2 (food category healthiness: healthy v. unhealthy)×3 (food label nutrient colouring schemes: healthy=green, unhealthy=red (HGUR) v. healthy=red, unhealthy=green (HRUG) v. no colour (control)) between-subjects design was used.
The research setting was a randomised-controlled experiment using varying formats of food packages and nutritional information colouring.
Respondents (n 196) sourced from a national consumer panel, USA.
The findings suggest that, for healthy foods, the nutritional colouring schemes reduced perceived healthiness, irrespective of which nutrients were coloured red or green (healthinesscontrol=4·86; healthinessHGUR=4·10; healthinessHRUG=3·70). In contrast, for unhealthy foods, there was no significant difference in perceptions of food healthiness when comparing different colouring schemes against the control.
The results make an important qualification to the common belief that colour coding can enhance the correct interpretation of nutrition information and suggest that this incentive may not necessarily support healthier food choices in all situations.
Sequential decision problems can often be modeled as Markov decision processes. Classical solution approaches assume that the parameters of the model are known. However, model parameters are usually estimated and uncertain in practice. As a result, managers are often interested in how estimation errors affect the optimal solution. In this paper we illustrate how sensitivity analysis can be performed directly for a Markov decision process with uncertain reward parameters using the Bellman equations. In particular, we consider problems involving (i) a single stationary parameter, (ii) multiple stationary parameters, and (iii) multiple nonstationary parameters. We illustrate the applicability of this work through a capacitated stochastic lot-sizing problem.
Spherically symmetric plasmas with high expansion velocities have been produced by irradiating targets with eight beams from the Helios CO2 laser in the presence of gases at various pressures. Attention was given to the properties of the target-emitted ions in order to obtain information about the ion acceleration mechanisms in plasma expansions. Photo-ionization of the ambient gases by the soft X-ray emission from the laser-irradiated targets produced background plasmas, permitting plasma counterstreaming experiments to be performed in spherical geometry. Successful laser-target coupling in the presence of background gases is obtained, modification of the ion acceleration in accordance with isothermal-expansion models is observed, and an absence of collective coupling between collisionless counterstreaming plasmas is found.
To assess the religious spirituality of EMS
personnel and their perception of the spiritual
needs of ambulance patients.
Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) and
paramedics presenting to an urban, academic
emergency department (ED) were asked to complete a
three-part survey relating to demographics,
personal practices, and perceived patient needs.
Their responses were compared to those of
ambulance patients presenting to an ED during a
previous study period and administered a similar
A total of 143 EMTs and 89 paramedics returned
the surveys. There were 161 (69.4%) male and 71
(30.6%) female respondents with a median age range
of 26–35 years old. Eighty-seven percent believed
in God, 82% practiced prayer or meditation, 62%
attended religious services occasionally, 55%
belonged to a religious organization, 39% felt
that their beliefs affected their job, and 18%
regularly read religious material. This was
similar to the characteristics of ambulance
However, only 43% felt that occasionally
ambulance patients presented with spiritual
concerns and 78% reported never or rarely
discussing spiritual issues with patients.
Contrastingly, >40% of ambulance patients
reported spiritual needs or concerns at the time
of ED presentation, and >50% wanted their
providers to discuss their beliefs. Twenty-six
percent of respondents reported praying or
meditating with patients, while 50% reported
praying or meditating for patients.
Females were no more religious or spiritual than
males, but were more likely to engage in prayer
with (OR = 2.38, p = 0.0049) or
for (OR = 6.45, p <0.0001)
patients than their male counterparts.
EMTs and paramedics did not perceive spiritual
concerns as often as reported by ambulance
patients, nor did they commonly inquire about the
religious/spiritual needs of patients.
Filtrations of modules over wreath products of algebras are studied and corresponding multiplicity formulas are given in terms of Littlewood–Richardson coefficients. An example relevant to Jantzen filtrations in Schur algebras is presented.
We study Rouquier blocks of symmetric groups and Schur algebras in detail, and obtain explicit descriptions for the radical layers of the principal indecomposable, Weyl, Young and Specht modules of these blocks. At the same time, the Jantzen filtrations of the Weyl modules are shown to coincide with their radical filtrations. We also address the conjectures of Martin, Lascoux–Leclerc–Thibon–Rouquier and James for these blocks.
In this paper, what is already known about defect 2 blocks of symmetric groups is used to deduce
information about the corresponding blocks of Schur algebras. This information includes Ext-quivers
and decomposition numbers, as well as Loewy structures of the Weyl modules, principal indecomposable
modules and tilting modules.
Global Trends and Regional Economic Interdependence
To sustain its rapid economic growth and development into the decade of the 1990s, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has to respond to the external challenges of maintaining strong economic relations with its major trading partners, thereby ensuring its market access to the United States, Japan, and Europe. ASEAN, as a whole and for its constituent member countries, also has to sustain international competitiveness in terms of attracting the flows of foreign direct investment and to maintain production costs and other advantages. The ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) is such a collective strategic response to pursue ASEAN's goals of stimulating intra- and extra- regional trade, improving the investment climate and enhancing the competitiveness of industrial performance of its member countries. This introductory overview attempts to provide a substantive background on the global and regional trends and issues concerning the rapidly changing international economic environment as well as highlight the increasing international economic interdependence, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. Then, recent developments pertaining to AFTA are discussed from the perspective of policy concerns with regard to regional trade co-operation in the broader context of economic co-operation beyond tariff issues to cover non-tariff issues and trade- related concerns. After these, the summaries of the various chapters will be presented.
AFTA as an international entity was formulated in January 1992 at the Fourth ASEAN Summit in Singapore. ASEAN declared then that it would establish a free trade area in fifteen years (by the year 2008), beginning on 1 January 1993, by means of the Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT) scheme. In the years prior to 1992, there were a number of fundamental changes in the global and regional economic environment which stimulated the formation of AFTA.