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The linear polarization of the Crab pulsar as a function of pulse phase was observed by the High Speed Photometer on the Hubble Space Telescope in March, 1993. Observations were obtained in a bandpass centered on 2770 A using a 0.25 ms sample time, corresponding to a time resolution of 0.0075 in pulse phase. The UV polarization of the pulsar [Fig. 1] is strikingly similar to that observed in the visible (cf. Smith et al. 1988). The same values of polarization and the same swing of position angle occur through the main and secondary pulses. The polarization pulse profile must be essentially wavelength independent at frequencies above the infrared.
Photon scanning tunneling microscopy (PSTM) has been used to obtain effective refractive indices of optical channel waveguide structures. The local evanescent field intensity associated with the propagation modes of optical channel waveguides are measured at two different wavelengths. Both a tapered optical fiber tip and a semiconductor heterostructure tip are employed for detection. Local values of effective refractive index are measured for both TE and TM polarizations and compared to model calculations.
Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectra have been used to characterize A10.3Ga0.7As/GaAs multiple quantum well (MQW) structures that have been patterned by focused ion beam (FIB) implantation followed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Microprobe Raman scattering is used to identify the appropriate RTA and FIB implantation conditions that provide for removal of implantation-induced damage and for compositional intermixing. FIB patterned wire-like structures are characterized by spatially resolved PL spectra.
Optical channel waveguiding in AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures formed by compositional mixing implemented by focused ion beam (FIB) implantation is demonstrated. To achieve selective mixing, Si is FIB implanted with a dose of 5×1014 cm−2 followed by RTA at 950°C for 10 s. Raman microprobe spectra are used to characterize the lateral variation of mixing. Propagation loss in a channel waveguide is measured. Measurement of the waveguide mode field distribution allows for the determination of changes in refractive index due to mixing and an approximate mixing depth.
Rapid thermal annealing has been used to initiate diffusion of Ti in LiNbO3 for the fabrication of optical waveguides. The sample with the most rapid initial ramp of temperature to 875 C was found to have the lowest propagation loss of 1 dB/cm. In order to more fully understand these channel waveguides, we have utilized Raman microprobe spectroscopy. Preliminary results suggest that the presence of the Ti in the LiNbO3 lattice dramatically alters the Raman response.
Optical channel waveguiding has been observed in a structure consisting of a silicon nitride ridge on a multilayer GaAlAs heterostructure. The silicon nitride layer was deposited and then patterned to form 3.5 micron wide ridges. The optical field intensity radiating from the endface of the channel waveguide is found to have two peaks symmetric about the center of the silicon nitride ridge. Raman microprobe spectroscopy indicates a significant stress-induced shift in the GaAs longitudinal phonon frequency. Rapid thermal annealing reduces the stress and changes the optical field intensity distribution to a single symmetric peak.
Raman Scattering as a technique for studying the formation of tungsten silicide is presented. The tungsten silicide films were formed by rapid thermally annealing tungsten films that were sputter deposited on silicon substrates. The Raman scattering data is correlated with data from resistivity measurements, Auger and Rutherford Backscattering measurements, and scanning electron microscopy.
Laser recrystallization of silicon on an insulating substrate has been carried out by irradiating polysilicon with both an Ar+ laser operating on all lines in the visible and a CO2 laser operating at 10.6 microns. These experiments were carried out over a variety of laser power densities and substrate temperatures. The use of the two lasers allowed for independent spatial control of temperature in both the polysilicon and the SiO2 layers and helped to reduce the strain at the polysilicon - SiO2 interface. We report the successful recrystallization of polysilicon films without substrate heating for two different silicon-on-insulator structures.