To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Adolescents with congenital heart defects (CHD) have an elevated risk for future cardiovascular events, but information about their risk for e-cigarette use (“vaping”) is unknown. This study aims to present preliminary findings on gender differences in the association of impulsive behavior and vaping susceptibility from an ongoing investigation. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Adolescents with CHD (12-18 years; N=63) reported their vaping susceptibility and completed subjective (UPPS-P)/objective (Iowa Gambling Task; IGT) assessments of impulsive behavior previously associated with tobacco use. The UPPS-P includes 5 facets: 1) negative urgency (impulsivity under negative emotions), 2) positive urgency (impulsivity under positive emotions), 3) lack of premeditation (acting without thinking), 4) lack of perseverance (inability to focus), and 5) sensation seeking (seeking thrilling experiences). The IGT is a computerized task that creates conflict between immediate reward and delayed punishment via selections from advantageous/disadvantageous card decks. Linear regressions stratified by gender determined associations between vaping susceptibility and impulsivity. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Nearly 30% (29.7%) of adolescents with CHD were susceptible to vaping. Negative urgency was associated with vaping susceptibility among females (Î² = 0.44, p = .035) but not males (Î² = 0.25, p = .128). Positive urgency was associated with vaping susceptibility among males (Î² = 0.37, p = .021) and trended toward significance among females (Î² = 0.40, p = .058). Lack of premeditation was associated with vaping susceptibility among males (Î² = 0.36, p = .025) but not females (Î² = 0.15, p = .490). The association between lack of perseverance and vaping susceptibility trended toward significance among males (Î² = 0.30, p = .064) but not females (Î² = -0.18, p = .413). IGT performance was not associated with susceptibility to vaping among either gender. UPPS-P facets and IGT performance were not significantly correlated. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The association of impulsivity and vaping susceptibility appears to be characterized by emotion-based rash action (positive/negative urgency) for females and by decreased conscientiousness (lack of premeditation/perseverance) for males. If replicated, the findings have implications for assessment of vaping risk and tailored intervention.
Contamination, when members of a comparison or control condition are exposed to the event or intervention under scientific investigation, is a methodological phenomenon that downwardly biases the magnitude of effect size estimates. This study tested a novel approach for controlling contamination in observational child maltreatment research. Data from The Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN; N = 1354) were obtained to estimate the risk of confirmed child maltreatment on trajectories of internalizing and externalizing behaviors before and after controlling contamination. Baseline models, where contamination was uncontrolled, demonstrated a risk for greater internalizing (b = .29, p < .001, d = .40) and externalizing (b = .14, p = .040, d = .19) behavior trajectories. Final models, where contamination was controlled by separating the comparison condition into subgroups that did or did not self-report maltreatment, also demonstrated risks for greater internalizing (b = .37, p < .001, d = .51) and externalizing (b = .22, p = .028, d = .29) behavior trajectories. However, effect size estimates in final models were 27.5%–52.6% larger compared to baseline models. Controlling contamination in child maltreatment research can strengthen effect size estimates for child behavior problems, aiding future child maltreatment research design and analysis.
Child maltreatment is a reliable predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, not all maltreated children develop PTSD symptoms, suggesting that additional mediating variables explain how certain maltreated children develop PTSD symptoms and others do not. The current study tested three potential mediators of the relationship between child maltreatment and subsequent PTSD symptoms: (a) respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity, (b) cortisol reactivity, and (c) experiential avoidance, or the unwillingness to experience painful private events, such as thoughts and memories. Maltreated (n = 51) and nonmaltreated groups (n = 59) completed a stressor paradigm, a measure of experiential avoidance, and a semistructured interview of PTSD symptoms. One year later, participants were readministered the PTSD symptoms interview. Results of a multiple mediator model showed the set of potential mediators mediated the relationship between child maltreatment and subsequent PTSD symptoms. However, experiential avoidance was the only significant, specific indirect effect, demonstrating that maltreated children avoiding painful private events after the abuse were more likely to develop a range of PTSD symptoms 1 year later. These results highlight the importance of experiential avoidance in the development of PTSD symptoms for maltreated children, and implications for secondary prevention and clinical intervention models are discussed.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.