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In patients with intracranial steno-occlusive disease (SOD), the risk of hemodynamic stroke depends on the poststenotic vasodilatory reserve. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is a test for vasodilatory reserve. We tested for vasodilatory reserve by using PETCO2 as the stressor, and Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) MRI as a surrogate of blood flow. We correlate the CVR to the incidence of stroke after a 1-year follow-up in patients with symptomatic intracranial SOD.
In this retrospective study, 100 consecutive patients with symptomatic intracranial SOD that had undergone CVR testing were identified. CVR was measured as % BOLD MR signal intensity/mmHg PETCO2. All patients with normal CVR were treated with optimal medical therapy; those with abnormal CVR were offered revascularization where feasible. We determined the incidence of stroke at 1 year.
83 patients were included in the study. CVR was normal in 14 patients and impaired in 69 patients ipsilateral to the lesion. Of these, 53 underwent surgical revascularization. CVR and symptoms improved in 86% of the latter. The overall incidence of stroke was 4.8 % (4/83). All strokes occurred in patients with impaired CVR (4/69; 2/53 in the surgical group, all in the nonrevascularized hemisphere), and none in patients with normal CVR (0/14).
Our study confirms that CO2-BOLD MRI CVR can be used as a brain stress test for the assessment of cerebrovascular reserve. Impaired CVR is associated with a higher incidence of stroke and normal CVR despite significant stenosis is associated with a low risk for stroke.
This discussion paper by a group of scholars across the fields of health, economics and labour relations argues that COVID-19 is an unprecedented humanitarian crisis from which there can be no return to the ‘old normal’. The pandemic’s disastrous worldwide health impacts have been exacerbated by, and have compounded, the unsustainability of economic globalisation based on the neoliberal dismantling of state capabilities in favour of markets. Flow-on economic impacts have simultaneously created major supply and demand disruptions, and highlighted the growing within-country inequalities and precarity generated by neoliberal regimes of labour market regulation. Taking an Australian and international perspective, we examine these economic and labour market impacts, paying particular attention to differential impacts on First Nations people, developing countries, women, immigrants and young people. Evaluating policy responses in a political climate of national and international leadership very different from those in which major twentieth century crises were addressed, we argue the need for a national and international conversation to develop a new pathway out of crisis.
Nonmedical opioid use (NMOU) has been associated with opioid overdose deaths. This pattern of misuse can be seen in those using opioids for cancer-associated pain. We present a case that highlights the complexities associated with NMOU and a patient’s care at the end of life.
A patient with a metastatic solid tumor malignancy along with co-occurring history of polysubstance abuse was admitted to an acute palliative and supportive care unit (APSCU). The patient demonstrated behaviors concerning for NMOU during her hospital stay but had increased symptom expression concerning for worsening dyspnea while in the APSCU. Unfortunately, she used home opioids, which was unknown to the team at the time along with requesting for higher doses of opioids that were being prescribed. This caused a worsening respiratory status and affected her care. Using an interdisciplinary approach, the providers managed her symptoms and discharged her safely to see her child.
This highlights the complexities of the alleviation of suffering in those with NMOU. It is important to continue to manage NMOU at the end of life due to its effects on quality of life. A multimodal approach is recommended to identify and care for these patients.
Although multiple studies have revealed that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines can reduce COVID-19–related outcomes, little is known about their impact on post–COVID-19 conditions. We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination against post–COVID-19 conditions (ie, long COVID).
We searched PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, and Web of Science from December 1, 2019, to April 27, 2022, for studies evaluating COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness against post–COVID-19 conditions among individuals who received at least 1 dose of Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna, AstraZeneca, or Janssen vaccine. A post–COVID-19 condition was defined as any symptom that was present 3 or more weeks after having COVID-19. Editorials, commentaries, reviews, study protocols, and studies in the pediatric population were excluded. We calculated the pooled diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) for post–COVID-19 conditions between vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated as 100% × (1 − DOR).
In total, 10 studies with 1,600,830 individuals evaluated the effect of vaccination on post–COVID-19 conditions, of which 6 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled DOR for post–COVID-19 conditions among individuals vaccinated with at least 1 dose was 0.708 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.692–0.725) with an estimated vaccine effectiveness of 29.2% (95% CI, 27.5%–30.8%). The vaccine effectiveness was 35.3% (95% CI, 32.3%–38.1%) among those who received the COVID-19 vaccine before having COVID-19, and 27.4% (95% CI, 25.4%–29.3%) among those who received it after having COVID-19.
COVID-19 vaccination both before and after having COVID-19 significantly decreased post–COVID-19 conditions for the circulating variants during the study period although vaccine effectiveness was low.
Reliable, long-term records of glacier mass change are invaluable to the glaciological and climate-change communities and used to assess the importance of glacier wastage on streamflow. Here we evaluate the in-situ observations of glacier mass change for Place (1982–2020) and Peyto glaciers (1983–2020) in western Canada. We use geodetic mass balance to calibrate a physically-based mass-balance model coupled with an ice dynamics routine. We find large discrepancies between the glaciological and geodetic records for the periods 1987–1993 (Place) and 2001–2006 (Peyto). Over the period of observations, the exclusion of ice dynamics in the model increased simulated cumulative mass change by ~10.6 (24%) and 7.1 (21%) m w.e. for Place and Peyto glacier, respectively. Cumulative mass loss using geodetic, modelled and glaciological approaches are respectively − 30.5 ± 4.5, − 32.0 ± 3.6, − 29.7 ± 3.6 m w.e. for Peyto Glacier (1982–2017) and − 45.9 ± 5.2, − 43.1 ± 3.1, − 38.4 ± 5.1 m w.e. for Place Glacier (1981–2019). Based on discrepancies noted in the mass-balance records for certain decades (e.g. 1990s), we caution the community if these data are to be used for hydrological model development.
Existing research finds that leaders develop international reputations based on their past behavior on the international stage. We argue that leaders’ domestic choices can also influence their international reputations, perhaps as much as their past foreign policy decisions do. Using formal theory and intuitive argumentation, we develop an overarching framework to predict how much any domestic choice will affect a leader’s international reputation. We theorize that certain domestic choices can inform expectations about future international crisis behavior based on the extent to which (1) the costs at stake are similar to those of an international crisis and (2) the domestic issue is salient relative to foreign policy. We use conjoint experiments and other evidence to show that many domestic choices have significant international reputational effects. There is some evidence that the reputational effect of certain domestic choices may equal that of fighting in a previous international crisis.