Biochemical evidence indicates that GABA and histamine may both be synthesized by barnacle photoreceptors (Koike & Tsuda, 1980; Timpe & Stuart, 1984; Callaway & Stuart, 1989b). We used antisera against GABA- and histamine-protein conjugates to determine whether the photoreceptors contain either or both of these antigens. Both antisera labeled all of the photoreceptors in each of the three ocelli. Histamine-like immunoreactivity was found throughout each photoreceptor cell but was most intense at their presynaptic terminals. Histamine-like immunoreactivity was blocked by preincubation of the antibody either with histamine or with a histamine-protein conjugate. GABA-like immunoreactivity was found in all parts of the photoreceptors including the cell body, axon, rhabdomeric dendrites, and presynaptic terminals. GABA-protein conjugates blocked the GABA-like labeling of the photoreceptors, while protein conjugates with histamine, L-glutamate, L-glutamine, β-alanine, and taurine did not. Histamine-like immunoreactivity in the supraesophageal ganglion was confined to the photoreceptor terminals and a second, loose plexus of endings in the main neuropil. GABA-like immunoreactivity, in contrast, was found in approximately twenty-five pairs of neurons of this ganglion. In the cirral nerves, which are expected to contain inhibitory motoneurons, unidentified axons also labeled with the GABA antiserum.