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Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex brain disorder linked to cognitive and neurostructural abnormalities that involves genetic and environmental factors with obstetric complications (OCs) at birth conferring a high risk for the disease. Indeed, current research in the general population describes the deleterious effect of OCs on cognitive performance in adulthood. With this rationale, we aim to review the relationship between OCs and cognition in SZ and related psychotic disorders.
A systematic review and meta-analysis describing cognitive function and OCs in patients with SZ and related disorders were conducted. PubMed, EmBase, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched to identify eligible studies up to January 2022. We calculated the effect sizes (Hedges' g) of cognitive domains within each study and quantified the proportion of between-study variability using the I2 statistic. Homogeneity was assessed using the Q-statistic (X2). The study was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42018094238).
A total of 4124 studies were retrieved, with 10 studies meeting inclusion criteria for the systematic review and eight for meta-analysis. SZ subjects with OCs showed poor verbal memory [Hedges' g = −0.89 (95% CI −1.41 to −0.37), p < 0.001] and working memory performance [Hedges' g = −1.47 (95% CI −2.89 to −0.06), p = 0.01] in a random-effect model compared to those without OCs.
OCs appear to have a moderate impact on specific cognitive such as working memory and verbal memory. Our findings suggest that OCs are associated with brain development and might underlie the cognitive abnormalities described at onset of psychosis.
Cannabis use in university students is associated with academic achievement failure and health issues. The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and cannabis use after 1 year among students according to previous cannabis use.
Students in France were recruited from February 2013 to July 2020 in the i-Share cohort. 4,270 participants were included (2,135 who never used cannabis at inclusion and 2,135 who did). The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) was used to assess ADHD symptoms at inclusion. Cannabis use frequency was evaluated 1 year after inclusion. Multinomial regressions were conducted to assess the association between inclusion ADHD symptoms and cannabis use after 1 year.
Increase in ASRS scores was linked with a greater probability to use cannabis after 1 year and to have a higher cannabis use frequency (once a year—once a month adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.24 (1.15–1.34), more than once a month adjusted OR: 1.43 (1.27–1.61)). Among participants who never used cannabis at inclusion, this association disappeared (once a year—once a month adjusted OR: 1.15 (0.95–1.39), more than once a month adjusted OR: 1.16 (0.67–2)) but remained in participants who ever used cannabis at inclusion (once a year—once a month adjusted OR: 1.17 (1.06–1.29), more than once a month adjusted OR: 1.35 (1.18–1.55)).
High levels of ADHD symptoms in students could lead to continued cannabis use rather than new initiations.
Deficits in emotional intelligence (EI) were detected in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), but little is known about whether these deficits are already present in patients after presenting a first episode mania (FEM). We sought (i) to compare EI in patients after a FEM, chronic BD and healthy controls (HC); (ii) to examine the effect exerted on EI by socio-demographic, clinical and neurocognitive variables in FEM patients.
The Emotional Intelligence Quotient (EIQ) was calculated with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Performance on MSCEIT was compared among the three groups using generalized linear models. In patients after a FEM, the influence of socio-demographic, clinical and neurocognitive variables on the EIQ was examined using a linear regression model.
In total, 184 subjects were included (FEM n = 48, euthymic chronic BD type I n = 75, HC n = 61). BD patients performed significantly worse than HC on the EIQ [mean difference (MD) = 10.09, standard error (s.e.) = 3.14, p = 0.004] and on the understanding emotions branch (MD = 7.46, s.e. = 2.53, p = 0.010). FEM patients did not differ from HC and BD on other measures of MSCEIT. In patients after a FEM, EIQ was positively associated with female sex (β = −0.293, p = 0.034) and verbal memory performance (β = 0.374, p = 0.008). FEM patients performed worse than HC but better than BD on few neurocognitive domains.
Patients after a FEM showed preserved EI, while patients in later stages of BD presented lower EIQ, suggesting that impairments in EI might result from the burden of disease and neurocognitive decline, associated with the chronicity of the illness.
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