To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Traditional housing markets have primarily ignored both the Bottom of the Pyramid (BOP) and the Middle of the Pyramid (MOP), as these groups are expelled out from commercial banking given they have insufficient money to formally build their homes, so they remain as vulnerable people. This housing shortage is of particular importance in developing countries where public intervention is not efficient to solve this social problem. In this chapter, and applied to the Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) nations, we show how the public–private initiatives based on innovation can help to solve this shortage of quality housing. We conclude that managers located in LAC countries have an active role in identifying social needs to satisfy them by applying innovative processes focused on reducing poverty gaps in housing from private initiatives. These creative procedures allow social entrepreneurs to adopt flexible and adjustable models to the variety of needs emerged in the different segments of the low-income market, and we show it in various cases for some LAC countries.
Type of feeding during early life influences growth trajectory and metabolic risk at later ages. Modifications in infant formula composition have led to evaluate their effects on growth and energetic efficiency (EE) compared with breast-feeding. Main goal was to analyse type of feeding potential effects during first months of life, plus its EE, on growth patterns in healthy formula fed (standard infant formula (SF) vs. experimental infant formula enriched with bioactive nutrients (EF)) and breastfed (BF) infants participating in the COGNIS RCT (http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT02094547) up to 18 months of age. Infants follow-up to 18 months of age (n 141) fed with a SF (n 48), EF(n 56), or BF (n 37), were assessed for growth parameters using WHO standards. Growth velocity (GV) and catch-up were calculated to identify growth patterns. EE of breast milk/infant formula was also estimated. Infants’ growth at 6 months showed higher length and lower head circumference gains in SF and EF infants than BF infants. Both weight-for-length and weight-for-age catch-up growth showed significant differences in formula fed groups compared with the BF. No significant differences in GV or catch-up were found at 6–12 and 12–18 months. Regarding EE, infant formula groups showed significantly lower weight and length gains/g of milk protein, and higher weight and length gains/g of milk lipids, than the BF infants. GV during first 6 months, which may be influenced by feeding, seems to be the main predictor of subsequent growth trajectory. Breast-feeding may have positive effects on growth programming due to its nutrients’ EE.
Data on short-term peripheral intravenous catheter–related bloodstream infections per 1,000 peripheral venous catheter days (PIVCR BSIs per 1,000 PVC days) rates from Latin America are not available, so they have not been thoroughly studied.
International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) members conducted a prospective, surveillance study on PIVCR BSIs from January 2010 to March 2018 in 100 intensive care units (ICUs) among 41 hospitals, in 26 cities of 9 countries in Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican-Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, and Venezuela). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Health Safety Network (NHSN) definitions were applied, and INICC methodology and INICC Surveillance Online System software were used.
In total, 10,120 ICU patients were followed for 40,078 bed days and 38,262 PVC days. In addition, 79 PIVCR BSIs were identified, with a rate of 2.06 per 1,000 PVC days (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.635–2.257). The average length of stay (ALOS) of patients without a PIVCR BSI was 3.95 days, and the ALOS was 5.29 days for patients with a PIVCR BSI. The crude extra ALOS was 1.34 days (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.0975–1.6351; P = .040).
The mortality rate in patients without PIVCR BSI was 3.67%, and this rate was 6.33% in patients with a PIVCR BSI. The crude extra mortality was 1.70 times higher. The microorganism profile showed 48.5% gram-positive bacteria (coagulase-negative Staphylococci 25.7%) and 48.5% gram-negative bacteria: Acinetobacter spp, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella spp (8.5% each one), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.7%), and Candida spp (2.8%). The resistances of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were 0% to amikacin and 50% to meropenem. The resistance of Acinetobacter baumanii to amikacin was 0%, and the resistance of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus to oxacillin was 75%.
Our PIVCR BSI rates were higher than rates from more economically developed countries and were similar to those of countries with limited resources.
The Monitoring Studies (MS) program, the approach developed by RedETS to generate postlaunch real-world evidence (RWE), is intended to complement and enhance the conventional health technology assessment process to support health policy decision making in Spain, besides informing other interested stakeholders, including clinicians and patients. The MS program is focused on specific uncertainties about the real effect, safety, costs, and routine use of new and insufficiently assessed relevant medical devices carefully selected to ensure the value of the additional research needed, by means of structured, controlled, participative, and transparent procedures. However, despite a clear political commitment and economic support from national and regional health authorities, several difficulties were identified along the development and implementation of the first wave of MS, delaying its execution and final reporting. Resolution of these difficulties at the regional and national levels and a greater collaborative impulse in the European Union, given the availability of an appropriate methodological framework already provided by EUnetHTA, might provide a faster and more efficient comparative RWE of improved quality and reliability at the national and international levels.
Payments for ecosystem services (PES) programmes have been considered an important conservation mechanism to avoid deforestation. These environmental policies act in social and ecological contexts at different spatial scales. We evaluated the social-ecological fit between stakeholders and ecosystem processes in a local PES programme across three levels: social, ecological and social-ecological. We explored collaboration among stakeholders, assessed connectivity between forest units and evaluated conservation activity links between stakeholders and forest units. In addition, to increase programme effectiveness, we classified forest units based on their social and ecological importance. Our main findings suggest that non-governmental organizations occupy brokerage positions between landowners and government in a dense collaboration network. We also found a partial spatial misfit between conservation activity links and the forest units that provide the most hydrological services to Xalapa. We conclude that conservation efforts should be directed towards the middle and high part of the Pixquiac sub-watershed and that the role of non-governmental organizations as mediators should be strengthened to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the local PES programme.
Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) is a key factor in the creation and development of companies. This study examines the CEO's personal background (personality, proactivity and resistance to change) and its influence on the EO of the organization to determine which factors enhance or weaken EO. We achieve this goal through quantitative research, developing a structural equations model with partial least squares to analyse a sample of 358 Spanish SMEs from different sectors. The results suggest that specific personality dimensions exert substantial influence on the organization's EO. We also analyse individual proactivity and resistance to change as conduits for the effect of personality dimensions on the company's EO.
Background: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) causes infections associated with high mortality rates among hospitalized patients. CPE transmission occurs frequently, and prevention of patient-to-patient transmission is a priority. However, transmission pathways are not yet completely understood. The colonization of the respiratory tract with a CPE may lead to a higher risk of contamination of the patient’s environment increasing the spread of CPE. Objective: We estimated the rate of CPE spread when respiratory tract infection or colonization is present. Methods: We studied CPE dissemination analyzing a cohort of patients admitted between January 2013 and December 2018 at the university hospital complex of A Corua, a tertiary-care hospital. All patients who were hospitalized in the same room as a patient colonized or infected with a CPE (index case) for at least 24 hours were screened for CPE carriage. The microbiological screening was performed with conventional culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identified possible CPE patient-to-patient transmission. The screening test included several samples: rectal swab, perineal swab, wound or drainage swab, and low respiratory tract sample. Results: Active screening for CPE carriage was performed in 84 contact patients. Men represent 57.1% of the sample, and the mean age was 78.5 years (men, 68.0 years and women, 80.8 years), with significant differences between sexes (12.9; 95% CI, 19.6 to 6.1). The major group of cases (86.9%) were hospitalized in medical wards. Transmission confirmed by PCR occurred in 13 (15.5%) of 84 contact patients, after a mean exposure to the index case of 13.3 days. No significant differences were detected in terms of mean exposure to index cases between those contact patients who result negative and those who result positive. The 35 index cases (41.7%) tested positive for CPE on the respiratory sample, and exposure to them led to 8 positive contact patients (61.5%). Conclusions: CPE transmission in a tertiary-care hospital occurred frequently. The spread rate is even higher when CPE is present at the respiratory level. Understanding the mode of spread is important for designing effective control measures and adding a respiratory sample to CPE screening could be a key consideration.
Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common healthcare-associated infections. Evidenced-based practice (EBP) successes of catheter associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) bundles has resulted in rates decreasing >50% in community-based nursing homes. The South Texas Community Living Center (CLC SA), our 42-bed long-term care and rehabilitation center, conducts routine infection prevention surveillance. During routine surveillance, the infection prevention team noticed an increase in UTI percentages and CAUTI rates. Thus, we sought to increase compliance with standard CAUTI bundles, and we implemented an intervention called the “bladder bundle.” Methods: A multidisciplinary team (ie, infection preventionist, clinical nurse leader, simulation director, educator, leadership and frontline staff champions) identified and evaluated practices through documentation of audits and safety rounds during April and May of 2017 (FY19 QTR 3). The comprehensive bladder bundle was initiated in June 2017, based on EBP interventions and included education for staff with audit and feedback. The team reviewed the literature and expanded the bladder bundle to include a comprehensive urinary note and oral hydration program for the veterans in addition to the standard CAUTI bundles (ie, minimize catheter use, use with appropriate indications, consider alternatives to catheters, proper insertion and securement). In May 2018, a facility-wide, hospital-wide initiative focused on a new urinary catheter insertion kit, insertion competencies and perineal care to improve outcomes. This initiative was added to our bladder bundle for CLC SA. Results: Before the intervention (FY16 Q3 to FY17 Q2), percentages of veterans with a UTI had increased to 4.65%, in FY17 Q3, this rate had increased to 11.76%. After the intervention (FY17 Q4 to FY19 Q3) the percentage dropped significantly to 0%, and this rate has now been sustained for 8 quarters. Our CLC SA has remained at zero harm and has no NHSN CAUTI has occurred since October 2017 (FY18Q1). The catheterization in bladder days has decreased from 162 days in FY14 to 49 in FY18, and for the first 2 quarters of FY19, there were only 25 days. For the last 8 quarters, documentation compliance has increased, as has use of BB interventions. Conclusions: The continuous improvement project targeted within the CLC SA, with education to staff, audit and feedback tools, and a comprehensive urinary note with the oral hydration program in combination with the standard CAUTI bundles, have improved veteran health outcomes and have expanded provider and nursing practices. The interprofessional team approach enhanced the success of this project.
Diminished diet quality in the Caribbean and other island settings may be related to a dietary transition from local foods towards imported products. The current study aimed to characterise the association between intentionally purchasing local foods (IPLF) and diet quality in Puerto Rico (PR).
Primary care clinics in the PR metropolitan area.
Data were obtained from adult participants (30–75 years; n 243) of the Puerto Rico Assessment of Diet, Lifestyle, and Diseases. IPLF was probed by asking: ‘How often do you purposely purchase foods from PR (like fruits, vegetables, meat and other products that are produced on the island rather than being imported)?’ Dietary intake was measured using a FFQ, and diet quality was assessed by the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (range 0–110; higher scores indicating higher diet quality). Multivariate-adjusted generalised linear models tested the association between IPLF and Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI) and its component scores.
A third (33·9 %) of participants reported seldom, 33·5 % reported often and 30·6 % reported always IPLF. Compared with seldom IPLF, fully adjusted mean AHEI scores were 3·6 (P = 0·038) points higher among those often IPLF and 9·3 (P < 0·0001) points higher among those always IPLF. Compared with seldom IPLF, those who always IPLF had significantly higher fully adjusted mean component scores for vegetables, fruits, whole grains, nuts and legumes, trans fat and n-3 fats.
Adults in PR who intentionally purchase local foods had higher diet quality, especially for intake of plant-based foods and healthy fats, highlighting potential dietary benefits associated with improved local food availability in PR.
Globally, rock art is one of the most widely distributed manifestations of past human activity. Previous research, however, has tended to focus on the art rather than artists. Understanding which members of society participated in creating such art is crucial to interpreting its social implications and that of the sites at which it is found. This article presents the first application of a method—palaeodermatoglyphics—for the estimation of the sex and age of two later prehistoric individuals who left their fingerprints at the Los Machos rockshelter in southern Iberia. The method has the potential to illuminate the complex socio-cultural dimensions of rock art sites worldwide.
The present study evaluated the effect of binder of sperm protein 1 (BSP1) and/or heparin on in vitro bovine capacitation and fertilization rates using epididymal and ejaculated bovine sperm. Frozen–thawed sperm were selected and used in the following treatments. Control group: Fert-TALP medium without heparin; heparin (HEP) group: Fert-TALP with heparin (10 UI/ml); BSP1 group: Fert-TALP medium with BSP1 (10 µg/ml for ejaculated sperm; 40 µg/ml for epididymal sperm); HEP + BSP1 group: Fert-TALP medium with heparin (5 UI/ml) and BSP1 (5 µg/ml for ejaculated sperm; 20 µg/ml for epididymal sperm) and determined in vitro capacitation rates in different interval times (0, 15, 30 and 60 min) using the chlortetracycline ﬂuorescence (CTC) method. Also, we evaluated the development rates of oocytes fertilized with ejaculated or epididymal sperm into the same treatments. Capacitation was greater and faster when ejaculated sperm were treated for 60 min with heparin compared with other treatments. However, developmental rates were similar in all treatments. For epididymal sperm, the treatments with BSP1 presented higher capacitation and fertilization rates compared with heparin (P < 0.05). The effects of heparin + BSP1 on capacitation and developmental rates did not cause any increase in capacitation or blastocyst rates compared with other groups for ejaculated or epididymal sperm. In conclusion, this study confirmed that either BSP1 and heparin can be used as capacitator agents for bovine ejaculated sperm during IVF. However, BSP1 seems to be more efficient compared with heparin for epididymal sperm. Furthermore, BSP1 and heparin have no synergic effects on sperm capacitation.
During menopause, women undergo a series of physiological changes that include a redistribution of fat tissue. This study was designed to investigate the effect of adding 10 g of cocoa-rich chocolate to the habitual diet of postmenopausal women daily on body composition. We conducted a 6-month, two-arm randomised, controlled trial. Postmenopausal women (57·2 (sd 3·6) years, n 132) were recruited in primary care clinics. Participants in the control group (CG) did not receive any intervention. Those of the intervention group (IG) received 10 g daily of 99 % cocoa chocolate in addition to their habitual diet for 6 months. This quantity comprises 247 kJ (59 kcal) and 65·4 mg of polyphenols. The primary outcomes were the between-group differences in body composition variables, measured by impendancemetry at the end of the study. The main effect of the intervention showed a favourable reduction in the IG with respect to the CG in body fat mass (–0·63 kg (95 % CI –1·15, –0·11), P = 0·019; Cohen’s d = –0·450) and body fat percentage (–0·79 % (95 % CI –1·31, –0·26), P = 0·004; Cohen’s d = –0·539). A non-significant decrease was also observed in BMI (–0·20 kg/m2 (95 % CI –0·44, 0·03), P = 0·092; Cohen’s d = –0·345). Both the body fat mass and the body fat percentage showed a decrease in the IG for the three body segments analysed (trunk, arms and legs). Daily addition of 10 g of cocoa-rich chocolate to the habitual diet of postmenopausal women reduces their body fat mass and body fat percentage without modifying their weight.
A large body of research states that cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is static. Nevertheless, most previous studies lack a control group or have small study samples or short follow-up periods.
We aimed to address these limitations by studying a large epidemiological cohort of patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders and a comparable control sample for a 10-year period.
Our results support the generalized stability of cognitive functions in schizophrenia spectrum disorders considering the entire group. However, the existence of a subgroup of patients characterized by deteriorating cognition and worse long-term clinical outcomes must be noted. Nevertheless, it was not possible to identify concomitant factors or predictors of deterioration (all Ps > 0.05).
Cognitive functions in schizophrenia spectrum disorder are stable; however, a subgroup of subjects that deteriorate can be characterized.
Costa Rica is near malaria elimination. This achievement has followed shifts in malaria health policy. Here, we evaluate the impacts that different health policies have had on malaria transmission in Costa Rica from 1913 to 2018. We identified regime shifts and used regression models to measure the impact of different health policies on malaria transmission in Costa Rica using annual case records. We found that vector control and prophylactic treatments were associated with a 50% malaria case reduction in 1929–1931 compared with 1913–1928. DDT introduction in 1946 was associated with an increase in annual malaria case reduction from 7.6% (1942–1946) to 26.4% (1947–1952). The 2006 introduction of 7-day supervised chloroquine and primaquine treatments was the most effective health policy between 1957 and 2018, reducing annual malaria cases by 98% (2009–2018) when compared with 1957–1968. We also found that effective malaria reduction policies have been sensitive to natural catastrophes and extreme climatic events, both of which have increased malaria transmission in Costa Rica. Currently, outbreaks follow malaria importation into vulnerable areas of Costa Rica. This highlights the need to timely diagnose and treat malaria, while improving living standards, in the affected areas.
The ‘jumping to conclusions’ (JTC) bias is associated with both psychosis and general cognition but their relationship is unclear. In this study, we set out to clarify the relationship between the JTC bias, IQ, psychosis and polygenic liability to schizophrenia and IQ.
A total of 817 first episode psychosis patients and 1294 population-based controls completed assessments of general intelligence (IQ), and JTC, and provided blood or saliva samples from which we extracted DNA and computed polygenic risk scores for IQ and schizophrenia.
The estimated proportion of the total effect of case/control differences on JTC mediated by IQ was 79%. Schizophrenia polygenic risk score was non-significantly associated with a higher number of beads drawn (B = 0.47, 95% CI −0.21 to 1.16, p = 0.17); whereas IQ PRS (B = 0.51, 95% CI 0.25–0.76, p < 0.001) significantly predicted the number of beads drawn, and was thus associated with reduced JTC bias. The JTC was more strongly associated with the higher level of psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in controls, including after controlling for IQ (B = −1.7, 95% CI −2.8 to −0.5, p = 0.006), but did not relate to delusions in patients.
Our findings suggest that the JTC reasoning bias in psychosis might not be a specific cognitive deficit but rather a manifestation or consequence, of general cognitive impairment. Whereas, in the general population, the JTC bias is related to PLEs, independent of IQ. The work has the potential to inform interventions targeting cognitive biases in early psychosis.