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The Pantanal Basin (west-central Brazil) is one of the largest alluvial wetlands in the world (> 150,000 km2) formed dominantly by coalescing Quaternary megafans. The Pantanal Basin is an efficient sediment trap: of 25 Mt yr–1 of suspended load that enters by the main river systems, only 10 Mt yr–1 is exported by the trunk river. Sediments are sourced by multiple rivers draining Precambrian lowlands and Paleozoic uplands. The eastern border displays tablelands of Paleozoic rocks of the Paraná Sedimentary Basin, with lowlands of Precambrian rocks on the northern, southern and western borders. The Taquari, Cuiabá, and São Lourenço megafans, tributaries to the Paraguay trunk-river system, are the largest fluvial fans in the Pantanal. The Paraguay River itself has produced two relatively small megafans. The megafans display four main landform assemblages: incised meander belts proximally, active aggradational lobes, abandoned degradational lobes, and mixed-process floodplains. Megafan surfaces display palaeodrainage networks ranging from braided channel planforms to the current meandering and anabranching planforms. Megafan areas seem to be a function of both feeder-basin area and catchment geology: those fed from sedimentary rock outcrops are larger, with more complex barform development than those supplied from Precambrian basement catchments.
Childhood adversity and cannabis use are considered independent risk factors for psychosis, but whether different patterns of cannabis use may be acting as mediator between adversity and psychotic disorders has not yet been explored. The aim of this study is to examine whether cannabis use mediates the relationship between childhood adversity and psychosis.
Data were utilised on 881 first-episode psychosis patients and 1231 controls from the European network of national schizophrenia networks studying Gene–Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study. Detailed history of cannabis use was collected with the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire. The Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire was used to assess exposure to household discord, sexual, physical or emotional abuse and bullying in two periods: early (0–11 years), and late (12–17 years). A path decomposition method was used to analyse whether the association between childhood adversity and psychosis was mediated by (1) lifetime cannabis use, (2) cannabis potency and (3) frequency of use.
The association between household discord and psychosis was partially mediated by lifetime use of cannabis (indirect effect coef. 0.078, s.e. 0.022, 17%), its potency (indirect effect coef. 0.059, s.e. 0.018, 14%) and by frequency (indirect effect coef. 0.117, s.e. 0.038, 29%). Similar findings were obtained when analyses were restricted to early exposure to household discord.
Harmful patterns of cannabis use mediated the association between specific childhood adversities, like household discord, with later psychosis. Children exposed to particularly challenging environments in their household could benefit from psychosocial interventions aimed at preventing cannabis misuse.
A cumulative environmental exposure score for schizophrenia (exposome score for schizophrenia [ES-SCZ]) may provide potential utility for risk stratification and outcome prediction. Here, we investigated whether ES-SCZ was associated with functioning in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls.
This cross-sectional sample consisted of 1,261 patients, 1,282 unaffected siblings, and 1,525 healthy controls. The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale was used to assess functioning. ES-SCZ was calculated based on our previously validated method. The association between ES-SCZ and the GAF dimensions (symptom and disability) was analyzed by applying regression models in each group (patients, siblings, and controls). Additional models included polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS-SCZ) as a covariate.
ES-SCZ was associated with the GAF dimensions in patients (symptom: B = −1.53, p-value = 0.001; disability: B = −1.44, p-value = 0.001), siblings (symptom: B = −3.07, p-value < 0.001; disability: B = −2.52, p-value < 0.001), and healthy controls (symptom: B = −1.50, p-value < 0.001; disability: B = −1.31, p-value < 0.001). The results remained the same after adjusting for PRS-SCZ. The degree of associations of ES-SCZ with both symptom and disability dimensions were higher in unaffected siblings than in patients and controls. By analyzing an independent dataset (the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis study), we replicated the results observed in the patient group.
Our findings suggest that ES-SCZ shows promise for enhancing risk prediction and stratification in research practice. From a clinical perspective, ES-SCZ may aid in efforts of clinical characterization, operationalizing transdiagnostic clinical staging models, and personalizing clinical management.
There is evidence that environmental and genetic risk factors for schizophrenia spectrum disorders are transdiagnostic and mediated in part through a generic pathway of affective dysregulation.
We analysed to what degree the impact of schizophrenia polygenic risk (PRS-SZ) and childhood adversity (CA) on psychosis outcomes was contingent on co-presence of affective dysregulation, defined as significant depressive symptoms, in (i) NEMESIS-2 (n = 6646), a representative general population sample, interviewed four times over nine years and (ii) EUGEI (n = 4068) a sample of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, the siblings of these patients and controls.
The impact of PRS-SZ on psychosis showed significant dependence on co-presence of affective dysregulation in NEMESIS-2 [relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI): 1.01, p = 0.037] and in EUGEI (RERI = 3.39, p = 0.048). This was particularly evident for delusional ideation (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 1.74, p = 0.003; EUGEI: RERI = 4.16, p = 0.019) and not for hallucinatory experiences (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 0.65, p = 0.284; EUGEI: −0.37, p = 0.547). A similar and stronger pattern of results was evident for CA (RERI delusions and hallucinations: NEMESIS-2: 3.02, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 6.44, p < 0.001; RERI delusional ideation: NEMESIS-2: 3.79, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 5.43, p = 0.001; RERI hallucinatory experiences: NEMESIS-2: 2.46, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 0.54, p = 0.465).
The results, and internal replication, suggest that the effects of known genetic and non-genetic risk factors for psychosis are mediated in part through an affective pathway, from which early states of delusional meaning may arise.
This study attempted to replicate whether a bias in probabilistic reasoning, or ‘jumping to conclusions’(JTC) bias is associated with being a sibling of a patient with schizophrenia spectrum disorder; and if so, whether this association is contingent on subthreshold delusional ideation.
Data were derived from the EUGEI project, a 25-centre, 15-country effort to study psychosis spectrum disorder. The current analyses included 1261 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 1282 siblings of patients and 1525 healthy comparison subjects, recruited in Spain (five centres), Turkey (three centres) and Serbia (one centre). The beads task was used to assess JTC bias. Lifetime experience of delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences was assessed using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. General cognitive abilities were taken into account in the analyses.
JTC bias was positively associated not only with patient status but also with sibling status [adjusted relative risk (aRR) ratio : 4.23 CI 95% 3.46–5.17 for siblings and aRR: 5.07 CI 95% 4.13–6.23 for patients]. The association between JTC bias and sibling status was stronger in those with higher levels of delusional ideation (aRR interaction in siblings: 3.77 CI 95% 1.67–8.51, and in patients: 2.15 CI 95% 0.94–4.92). The association between JTC bias and sibling status was not stronger in those with higher levels of hallucinatory experiences.
These findings replicate earlier findings that JTC bias is associated with familial liability for psychosis and that this is contingent on the degree of delusional ideation but not hallucinations.
Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ involved in a variety of regulatory functions beyond simple fat storage. Excessive fat accumulation in the visceral tissue has been related to obesity associated comorbidities and manifestations such as hypertension, hyperglycaemia, hypercholesterolemia, and inflammatory processes. In the later stages of life, there is a shift of fat distribution from subcutaneous to visceral depots, which is associated to the development of several age-related diseases. Epigenetics has been described as a potential contributor in aging processes, being also associated with diseases and fat deposition that progress with age. The aim of this research was to investigate the relationships between aging, epigenetic processes and visceral adipose tissue.
The study population included 269 adult subjects recruited in the University of Navarra, Spain. Methylation data was assessed by Infinium MethylationEPIC beadchip from Illumina. Epigenetic age acceleration was calculated using the method GrimAge (AgeAccGrim), available in the website DNA methylation Age Calculator (https://dnamage.genetics.ucla.edu/home). Anthropometric, biochemical and blood pressure measurements were assessed following standardized methods. Body composition measurements by DXA were also carried out.
Statistically significant correlations were found between age acceleration and waist circumference, some DXA-measured variables (lean mass, trunk fat mass, android fat mass, visceral adipose tissue mass), glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides levels and C-reactive protein. Linear regression models showed that visceral adipose tissue mass and HDL-cholesterol were conjointly influencing the epigenetic age acceleration. In addition, a mediation by HDL-cholesterol in the relationship between AgeAccGrim and visceral adipose tissue mass was found.
Collectively, these findings demonstrated that visceral adiposity and dyslipidaemia are associated with accelerated aging effects, contributing to understand the development of age-related diseases.
Several studies have shown that the Brazilian Northeast is a region with high rates of inbreeding as well as a high incidence of autosomal recessive diseases. The elaboration of public health policies focused on the epidemiological surveillance of congenital anomalies and rare genetic diseases in this region is urgently needed. However, the vast territory, socio-demographic heterogeneity, economic difficulties and low number of professionals with expertise in medical genetics make strategic planning a challenging task. Surnames can be compared to a genetic system with multiple neutral alleles and allow some approximation of population structure. Here, surname analysis of more than 37 million people was combined with health and socio-demographic indicators covering all 1794 municipalities of the nine states of the region. The data distribution showed a heterogeneous spatial pattern (Global Moran Index, GMI = 0.58; p < 0.001), with higher isonymy rates in the east of the region and the highest rates in the Quilombo dos Palmares region – the largest conglomerate of escaped slaves in Latin America. A positive correlation was found between the isonymy index and the frequency of live births with congenital anomalies (r = 0.268; p < 0.001), and the two indicators were spatially correlated (GMI = 0.50; p < 0.001). With this approach, quantitative information on the genetic structure of the Brazilian Northeast population was obtained, which may represent an economical and useful tool for decision-making in the medical field.
We present a detailed overview of the cosmological surveys that we aim to carry out with Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1) and the science that they will enable. We highlight three main surveys: a medium-deep continuum weak lensing and low-redshift spectroscopic HI galaxy survey over 5 000 deg2; a wide and deep continuum galaxy and HI intensity mapping (IM) survey over 20 000 deg2 from
$z = 0.35$
to 3; and a deep, high-redshift HI IM survey over 100 deg2 from
$z = 3$
to 6. Taken together, these surveys will achieve an array of important scientific goals: measuring the equation of state of dark energy out to
$z \sim 3$
with percent-level precision measurements of the cosmic expansion rate; constraining possible deviations from General Relativity on cosmological scales by measuring the growth rate of structure through multiple independent methods; mapping the structure of the Universe on the largest accessible scales, thus constraining fundamental properties such as isotropy, homogeneity, and non-Gaussianity; and measuring the HI density and bias out to
$z = 6$
. These surveys will also provide highly complementary clustering and weak lensing measurements that have independent systematic uncertainties to those of optical and near-infrared (NIR) surveys like Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST leading to a multitude of synergies that can improve constraints significantly beyond what optical or radio surveys can achieve on their own. This document, the 2018 Red Book, provides reference technical specifications, cosmological parameter forecasts, and an overview of relevant systematic effects for the three key surveys and will be regularly updated by the Cosmology Science Working Group in the run up to start of operations and the Key Science Programme of SKA1.
First-degree relatives of patients with psychotic disorder have higher levels of polygenic risk (PRS) for schizophrenia and higher levels of intermediate phenotypes.
We conducted, using two different samples for discovery (n = 336 controls and 649 siblings of patients with psychotic disorder) and replication (n = 1208 controls and 1106 siblings), an analysis of association between PRS on the one hand and psychopathological and cognitive intermediate phenotypes of schizophrenia on the other in a sample at average genetic risk (healthy controls) and a sample at higher than average risk (healthy siblings of patients). Two subthreshold psychosis phenotypes, as well as a standardised measure of cognitive ability, based on a short version of the WAIS-III short form, were used. In addition, a measure of jumping to conclusion bias (replication sample only) was tested for association with PRS.
In both discovery and replication sample, evidence for an association between PRS and subthreshold psychosis phenotypes was observed in the relatives of patients, whereas in the controls no association was observed. Jumping to conclusion bias was similarly only associated with PRS in the sibling group. Cognitive ability was weakly negatively and non-significantly associated with PRS in both the sibling and the control group.
The degree of endophenotypic expression of schizophrenia polygenic risk depends on having a sibling with psychotic disorder, suggestive of underlying gene–environment interaction. Cognitive biases may better index genetic risk of disorder than traditional measures of neurocognition, which instead may reflect the population distribution of cognitive ability impacting the prognosis of psychotic disorder.
The University of São Paulo Twin Panel (Painel USP de Gêmeos), based at the Institute of Psychology of the University of São Paulo, started formally in 2017. Our registry is new, but in only two years of formal existence, it comprises a volunteer sample of 4826 registered individuals (98% twins and 2% higher-order multiples), recruited at the University of São Paulo and by social media campaigns. Our main aim is to conduct and promote research with twins on psychological processes and behavior. The University of São Paulo is the largest higher education and research institution in South America, and the Painel USP de Gêmeos has great potential for fostering research on twin-related issues from a psychological perspective in Brazil and South America.
The value of the nosological distinction between non-affective and affective psychosis has frequently been challenged. We aimed to investigate the transdiagnostic dimensional structure and associated characteristics of psychopathology at First Episode Psychosis (FEP). Regardless of diagnostic categories, we expected that positive symptoms occurred more frequently in ethnic minority groups and in more densely populated environments, and that negative symptoms were associated with indices of neurodevelopmental impairment.
This study included 2182 FEP individuals recruited across six countries, as part of the EUropean network of national schizophrenia networks studying Gene–Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study. Symptom ratings were analysed using multidimensional item response modelling in Mplus to estimate five theory-based models of psychosis. We used multiple regression models to examine demographic and context factors associated with symptom dimensions.
A bifactor model, composed of one general factor and five specific dimensions of positive, negative, disorganization, manic and depressive symptoms, best-represented associations among ratings of psychotic symptoms. Positive symptoms were more common in ethnic minority groups. Urbanicity was associated with a higher score on the general factor. Men presented with more negative and less depressive symptoms than women. Early age-at-first-contact with psychiatric services was associated with higher scores on negative, disorganized, and manic symptom dimensions.
Our results suggest that the bifactor model of psychopathology holds across diagnostic categories of non-affective and affective psychosis at FEP, and demographic and context determinants map onto general and specific symptom dimensions. These findings have implications for tailoring symptom-specific treatments and inform research into the mood-psychosis spectrum.
The onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects couples’ relationship. We investigated the perception of change and sexual satisfaction in spouse-caregivers and their partners diagnosed with AD.
We compared 74 dyads of people with Alzheimer's disease (PwAD)/spouse-caregivers and 21 elderly dyads control. We assessed sexual satisfaction with Questionnaire on Sexual Experience and Satisfaction (QSES), cognition using a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), disease severity using a Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR), awareness of disease with Assessment Scale of Psychosocial Impact of the Diagnosis of Dementia (ASPIDD), functionality with Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ), depressive symptoms with Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD), quality of life using a Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease Scale (QoL-AD), and burden using a Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI).
We found differences between the perception and no perception of change in sexual activity of PwAD (p < 0.001), spouse-caregivers (p < 0.01), and controls (p < 0.05). Moderate to severe sexual dissatisfaction was observed in 36.5% of PwAD, 65% of spouse-caregivers, and 31% of controls. PwAD sexual satisfaction was related to cognitive impairment (p < 0.05). Spouse-caregivers sexual satisfaction was related to gender (p < 0.05) and the presence of sexual activity (p < 0.001).
The perception of change with higher sexual dissatisfaction, were significant in PwAD and their spouse-caregivers, in comparison with couples of elderly without dementia.
Solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) obtained via
hydrolysis/pyrolysis of an organic precursor present an excellent technique to
obtain high performance electronic devices with low manufacturing cost. In the
current work, we propose the use of an alternative deposition method, based on a
polymeric precursor route (known as Pechini), to obtain solution-processed ZnO
compact films as the active layer of TFTs. The elimination of the organic phase
and the formation of inorganic thin-films was carried out by thermal treatment
at different temperatures (ranging from 200°C to 500°C) and at
different times (from 5 min to 2 hours), being monitored by UV-vis and infrared
(IR) optical absorption spectroscopy. It was observed that, for temperatures
above 400°C and treatment times superior to 30 min, the organic phase
was completely eliminated, remaining only the inorganic (metal oxide) phase. The
optical bandgap of the resulting ZnO films, determined from UV-vis absorption,
is about 3.4 eV. The electrical characteristics (output and transfer curves) of
the obtained devices demonstrate the feasibility of Pecchini method to build
solution-processed metal oxide TFTs. The results for the electrical mobility of
the majority charge-carriers (electrons) and for the threshold voltage were 0.39
cm2.V-1.s-1 and 0.45 V, respectively.
The highlight of this work is the synthesis of copper sulfide nanocrystals by a simple one-pot colloidal process, and the study of its electrochemical, electrical and morphological properties. Nanocrystals of Cu1.8S of about 15-30 nm were obtained at a temperature of 240°C under an argon atmosphere. The colloidal solution of the nanocrystals was analyzed by cyclic voltammetry. Agreeing to the values of EOx and ERedvs. SCE, and the average of three samples the HOMO and LUMO levels are 6.16 and 4.27 eV, respectively, the calculated HOMO – LUMO (Eg) is 1.89 eV. The Eg value, differs of that value obtained from Kubelka-Munk equation (1.7 eV). The photocurrent vs. time results showed that the Cu1.8S/Cu junction is photosensitive and could be used as absorbing material. The morphology and the topography of the film were analyzed by SEM and AFM techniques. Irregular agglomeration of nanocrystals was observed and a roughness of about 194 nm.
The relationship between sexuality and quality of life (QoL) of spouse-caregivers remains unclear. We designed this study to evaluate the relationship between sexual satisfaction and spouse-caregivers’ QoL, and to determine the influence of the clinical characteristics of people with dementia (PWD) on spouse-caregivers’ self-reported QoL.
Using a cross-sectional design, 54 PWD and their spouse-caregivers completed the QoL in Alzheimer's Disease scale (QoL-AD), questionnaire on sexual experience and satisfaction (QSES), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR), Assessment Scale of Psychosocial Impact of the Diagnosis of Dementia (ASPIDD), Pfeffer functional activities questionnaire (FAQ), the Cornell scale for depression in dementia (CSDD) and Zarit burden interview (ZBI). Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to identify the factors that influenced the spouse-caregivers’ QoL ratings.
We did not find a significant difference in QoL between male and female spouse-caregivers (p = 0.71). We also found that 13% of males and 48.1% of females demonstrated moderate to severe sexual dissatisfaction. However, we did not find a significant correlation between spouse-caregivers’ QoL and sexual satisfaction (p = 0.41). The linear regression indicated that impaired awareness and lower QoL of PWD were significantly related to spouse-caregivers’ QoL (p = 0.000).
The spouse-caregivers’ QoL is influenced by awareness of disease and PWD QoL. Our study would be helpful for the development of adequate psycho-educational approaches to increase spouse-caregivers’ QoL, considering the specificities of the couples’ relationship.
To assess the agreement between self-reported and parent-reported dietary and physical activity habits in children; and to evaluate the socio-economic determinants of healthier habits (Mediterranean diet and physical activity) among children.
Cross-sectional analysis of children recruited to a cluster-randomized controlled trial (Program SI!). Information about children’s and parents’ dietary and physical activity habits was obtained through validated questionnaires (Program SI! questionnaires, Kidmed, Krece Plus and Predimed scores).
Twenty-four schools in Madrid, Spain.
Children (n 2062) aged 3–5 years and their parents (n 1949).
There was positive agreement between parental- and self-reporting for three of the six children’s habits examined. Parents’ dietary and physical activity patterns were associated with those of their children. The main determinants of higher scores in children were higher parental age, the mother’s scores, Spanish origin and higher awareness of human health (P<0·005). Children from parents with a low educational level had lower odds for scoring positively on items such as using olive oil (OR=0·23; 95 % CI 0·13, 0·41) and not skipping breakfast (OR=0·36; 95 % CI 0·23, 0·55), but higher odds for meeting the recommendations for consuming pulses (OR=1·71; 95 % CI 1·14, 2·55). Other habits being influenced by parental socio-economic status included the consumption of vegetables, fish, nuts, avoidance of fast food, and consumption of bakery products for breakfast.
Children’s habits may be influenced by their parents’ health awareness and other socio-economic characteristics. These findings suggest that intervention strategies, even in very young children, should also target parents in order to achieve maximum success.
Intestinal mucositis is an important toxic side effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment. Saccharomyces boulardii is known to protect from intestinal injury via an effect on the gastrointestinal microbiota. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of S. boulardii on intestinal mucositis induced by 5-FU in a murine model. Mice were divided into saline, saline (control)+5-FU or 5-FU+S. boulardii (16 × 109 colony-forming units/kg) treatment groups, and the jejunum and ileum were removed after killing of mice for the evaluation of histopathology, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and non-protein sulfhydryl group (mainly reduced glutathione; GSH), nitrite and cytokine concentrations. To determine gastric emptying, phenol red was administered orally, mice were killed 20 min after administration, and the absorbance of samples collected from the mice was measured by spectrophotometry. Intestinal permeability was measured by the urinary excretion rate of lactulose and mannitol following oral administration. S. boulardii significantly reversed the histopathological changes in intestinal mucositis induced by 5-FU and reduced the inflammatory parameters: neutrophil infiltration (control 1·73 (sem 0·37) ultrastructural MPO (UMPO)/mg, 5-FU 7·37 (sem 1·77) UMPO/mg and 5-FU+S. boulardii 4·15 (sem 0·73) UMPO/mg); nitrite concentration (control 37·00 (sem 2·39) μm, 5-FU 59·04 (sem 11·41) μm and 5-FU+S. boulardii 37·90 (sem 5·78) μm); GSH concentration (control 477·60 (sem 25·25) μg/mg, 5-FU 270·90 (sem 38·50) μg/mg and 5-FU+S. boulardii 514·00 (sem 38·64) μg/mg). Treatment with S. Boulardii significantly reduced the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β by 48·92 and 32·21 % in the jejunum and 38·92 and 61·79 % in the ileum. In addition, S. boulardii decreased the concentrations of chemokine (C–X–C motif) ligand 1 by 5-fold in the jejunum and 3-fold in the ileum. Interestingly, S. boulardii reduced the delay in gastric emptying (control 25·21 (sem 2·55) %, 5-FU 54·91 (sem 3·43) % and 5-FU+S. boulardii 31·38 (sem 2·80) %) and induced the recovery of intestinal permeability (lactulose:mannitol ratio: control 0·52 (sem 0·03), 5-FU 1·38 (sem 0·24) and 5-FU+S. boulardii 0·62 (sem 0·03)). In conclusion, S. boulardii reduces the inflammation and dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract in intestinal mucositis induced by 5-FU.
Glutamine may be a precursor for NO synthesis, which may play a crucial role in bacterial translocation (BT). The goal of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of glutamine on BT and the immunological response in an experimental model of NO synthase inhibition by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME). Mice were randomly assigned to four groups: sham; intestinal obstruction (IO); IO+500 mg/kg per d glutamine (GLN); IO+GLN plus 10 mg/kg per d l-NAME (GLN/LN). The groups were pretreated for 7 d. BT was induced by ileal ligation and was assessed 18 h later by measuring the radioactivity of 99mTc-Escherichiacoli in the blood and organs. Mucosal damage was determined using a histological analysis. Intestinal permeability (IP) was assessed by measuring the levels of 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid in the blood at 4, 8 and 18 h after surgery. IgA and cytokine concentrations were determined by ELISA in the intestinal fluid and plasma, respectively. BT was increased in the GLN/LN and IO groups than in the GLN and sham groups. IP and intestinal mucosa structure of the sham, GLN and GLN/LN groups were similar. The GLN group had the highest levels of interferon-γ, while IL-10 and secretory IgA levels were higher than those of the IO group but similar to those of the GLN/LN group. The present results suggest that effects of the glutamine pathway on BT were mediated by NO. The latter also interferes with the pro-inflammatory systemic immunological response. On the other hand, IP integrity preserved by the use of glutamine is independent of NO.