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Fluorescence techniques have been widely used by scientists to reveal valuable information from biological samples, but in food science, small progress is known due to the complexity of the samples. In this study, two different biological samples, garlic skin (GS) and agave fibers (AF), were used to evaluate the techniques of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, to obtain valuable information on the fiber size of the samples. A compositional characterization with calcofluor white in CLSM was achieved, but a superficial characterization of the samples with TIRF was made, evidencing fiber sizes of 398.67 ± 48.47 nm and 677.38 ± 76.88 nm for GS and AF, respectively. This work reveals that only an untreated sample can be used with the two techniques in the same microscope. In addition, it is possible to characterize the sample only using a spatial field of research and which valuable information about the structure of the material is found. This work provides the opportunity to use advanced fluorescence techniques for elucidation of structures shortly before studied with these techniques.
In this work, we used measures of diversity and biogeographic patterns to evaluate the response of dung-beetle assemblages (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) at two cattle ranches with different management systems on the southern Mexican High Plateau. The number of individuals and biomass were used as the primary diversity attributes of the assemblage. The 1D and 2D true diversity indexes of these attributes were examined, and the attributes were classified according to Halffter’s biogeographical patterns. In total, 1375 Scarabaeinae adults were collected, representing 11 species and seven genera. Site management regime did not significantly affect species richness or assemblage structure when the number of individuals was considered. However, species diversity and biomass turnover were higher in the system with holistic management than in that with semitechnified management. The proportions of Halffter’s biogeographical patterns also differed between the two production systems. In conclusion, the location under holistic management, despite having cattle production, contained a significant proportion of the Scarabaeinae species that are typical of the Mexican High Plateau. In contrast, the semitechnified system negatively impacted beetle abundance, leading to half the individuals, the dominance of species with high biomass, and the absence of groups typical of the region.
Data on short-term peripheral intravenous catheter–related bloodstream infections per 1,000 peripheral venous catheter days (PIVCR BSIs per 1,000 PVC days) rates from Latin America are not available, so they have not been thoroughly studied.
International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) members conducted a prospective, surveillance study on PIVCR BSIs from January 2010 to March 2018 in 100 intensive care units (ICUs) among 41 hospitals, in 26 cities of 9 countries in Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican-Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, and Venezuela). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Health Safety Network (NHSN) definitions were applied, and INICC methodology and INICC Surveillance Online System software were used.
In total, 10,120 ICU patients were followed for 40,078 bed days and 38,262 PVC days. In addition, 79 PIVCR BSIs were identified, with a rate of 2.06 per 1,000 PVC days (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.635–2.257). The average length of stay (ALOS) of patients without a PIVCR BSI was 3.95 days, and the ALOS was 5.29 days for patients with a PIVCR BSI. The crude extra ALOS was 1.34 days (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.0975–1.6351; P = .040).
The mortality rate in patients without PIVCR BSI was 3.67%, and this rate was 6.33% in patients with a PIVCR BSI. The crude extra mortality was 1.70 times higher. The microorganism profile showed 48.5% gram-positive bacteria (coagulase-negative Staphylococci 25.7%) and 48.5% gram-negative bacteria: Acinetobacter spp, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella spp (8.5% each one), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.7%), and Candida spp (2.8%). The resistances of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were 0% to amikacin and 50% to meropenem. The resistance of Acinetobacter baumanii to amikacin was 0%, and the resistance of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus to oxacillin was 75%.
Our PIVCR BSI rates were higher than rates from more economically developed countries and were similar to those of countries with limited resources.
Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) is a key factor in the creation and development of companies. This study examines the CEO's personal background (personality, proactivity and resistance to change) and its influence on the EO of the organization to determine which factors enhance or weaken EO. We achieve this goal through quantitative research, developing a structural equations model with partial least squares to analyse a sample of 358 Spanish SMEs from different sectors. The results suggest that specific personality dimensions exert substantial influence on the organization's EO. We also analyse individual proactivity and resistance to change as conduits for the effect of personality dimensions on the company's EO.
Background: Hand hygiene (HH) is the most important measure for preventing healthcare-associated infections. The objective is to gain insight into the evolution of the degree of compliance with recommendations (DCR) on HH and its associated factors in the surgical areas of a tertiary-care hospital. Methods: This observational, cross-sectional study, was repeated over time, with direct observation of the DCR on HH during the daily activity of healthcare workers in surgical areas: general surgery, urology, vascular surgery, traumatology, neurosurgery, thoracic surgery, heart surgery, pediatric surgery, otorhinolaryngology, gynecology and obstetrics, ophthalmology. Over 14 years (from 2005 to 2018), 15,946 HH opportunities were registered, together with different additional variables (age, sex, professional position, surgical area ). The 2 test was used to study the association and the crude, and adjusted odds ratios were used to quantify its magnitude. Results: The DCR on HH in surgical areas was 49.7% (95% CI, 48.9%–50.5%), and in the group of nonsurgical areas it was 53.4% (95% CI, 53.1%–54.1%). The area with the highest degree of compliance was urology (56.7%; 95% CI, 53.9%–59.6%), and the area with the lowest degree of compliance was traumatology (43.3%; 95% CI, 40.4%–46.2%). Some associated factors were the indications after an activity has been performed (58.6%; aOR, 2.7; 95% CI, 2.5–2.9) and the availability of pocket-size alcohol-based disinfectant (63.8%; aOR, 2.4; 95% CI, 2.2–2.5). Conclusions: The DCR on HH in surgical areas is lower than in other hospital areas, and there is still some margin for improvement. We have identified some modifiable factors that have an independent association with HH compliance in surgical areas. Focusing on them will increase compliance with HH with the ultimate goal of reducing healthcare-associated infections.
Background:Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is the third etiologic agent of healthcare associated infections, and the most frequent pathogen in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). In critical care units is associated with high mortality, long hospital stay, and high healthcare-associated costs. We evaluated the effectiveness of filter placement in the water taps in critical care units to prevent the occurrence of healthcare-associated infections (HAIa) by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods: This experimental study was both cross-over and open-label in nature. We included patients admitted for >24 hours in critical care units over 24 months. The study was divided into 4 periods of 6 months each. We divided the study into 2 groups: patients in units with filters and patients in units without filters. We compared the incidence density of P. aeruginosa HAIs (number of cases divided by the number of person days) according the ECDC definition of case criteria between the groups. The 2 test was used, and the magnitude of the association was calculated as a rate ratio with a 95% confidence interval, adjusted using a Poisson regression model. Results: Overall, 1,132 patients were included in the study: 595 in units with water tap filters and 537 in units without water tap filters. HAI incidence among patients in units with water tap filters was 5.3 per 1,000 person days stay; without water tap filters, HAI incidence was 4.7 per 1,000 person days stay (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.47–1.90). Conclusions: The preliminary results of this study indicate a a lower incidence of P. aeruginosa HAIs in units with filters placed in water taps than in units without filters.
Catholicism and Protestantism have different ways of promoting the family unit that could influence survival and fertility at a population level. Parish records in the Austrian village of Hallstatt allowed the reconstruction of Catholic and Protestant genealogies over a period of 175 years (1733–1908) to evaluate how religion and social changes affected reproduction and survival. Life history traits such as lifespan beyond 15 years, number of offspring, reproductive span, children born out of wedlock and child mortality were estimated in 5678 Catholic and 3282 Protestant individuals. The interaction of sex, time and religion was checked through non-parametric factorial ANOVAs. Religion and time showed statistically significant interactions with lifespan >15 years, number of offspring and age at birth of first child. Protestants lived longer, had a larger reproductive span and an earlier age at birth of first child. Before the famine crisis of 1845–1850, Protestants showed lower values of childhood mortality than Catholics. Comparison of the number of children born out of wedlock revealed small differences between the two religions. Religion influenced reproduction and survival, as significant differences were found between Catholics and Protestants. This influence could be explained in part by differential socioeconomic characteristics, since Protestants may have enjoyed better living and sanitary conditions in Hallstatt.
Infertility is defined as a failure of spontaneous conception after one year of regular sexual intercourse in the absence of contraceptive measures . This entity represents a rising medical complaint since one out of eight couples find it difficult to conceive a child for the first time, and up to one in six find it difficult to conceive twice. Currently, 70 million couples of reproductive age suffer from infertility worldwide, accounting for an estimated overall prevalence of 15% .
– To describe the utilization, geographical variations and adaptation of ECT in the Spanish context.
– A cross-sectional study, involving a questionnaire delivered to all hospitals with a Psychiatry Unit (PU) in Spain included in the National Hospitals Catalogue (N = 233). A descriptive analysis was made of the answers to the different questions, using an adequate denominator in each case: all PUs (n = 233), those units that prescribe and apply ECT (n = 174), or only those that apply the technology (n = 108).
– All PUs completed the questionnaire. Fifty-nine units (25.3%) neither prescribed nor applied ECT, while 108 (46.4%) prescribed and applied the technology, and 66 PUs (28.3%) only prescribed ECT. Those units with training responsibilities for psychiatry residents or pregraduate students, and those with a larger number of beds, were more inclined to apply ECT. The estimated ECT applied in the preceding 12 months totaled 2435 with an annual rate per 10,000 inhabitants of 0.61, and a range per Spanish Autonomous Community of 0.28–16.59.
– We now know a reliable rate and characteristics of the use of ECT in Spain, and the attitudes and opinion of PUs Spanish psychiatrists about it. We found a very important variability in ECT application rates among Autonomous Communities.
This paper examines genetic erosion in rice landraces thriving in traditional smallholder agricultural systems in the Sarangani uplands, Philippines. In these marginal areas, the crop is closely interwoven with tribal culture and is vital in ensuring food security among upland households. Field visits unveiled high varietal diversity for upland rice and a rich tapestry of indigenous knowledge associated with its cultivation and use. Study results, however, revealed the tapering of the crop's genetic base due to farmers' changing priorities, pest infestation, weakening seed supply systems, shift to cash crops, natural calamities, environmental degradation, government programmes and peace and order problems. Consequently, these pressures undermined traditional agricultural systems in Sarangani upland communities causing food and water scarcity, hunger and suffering on a catastrophic scale. Interdisciplinary strategies aimed at simultaneously averting further varietal losses and environmental degradation while improving human well-being are therefore warranted. Furthermore, making traditional rice farming a lucrative endeavour will induce the younger generation to remain in the uplands and choose farming as a profession. This way, biocultural restoration of agriculture will be attained and the continued presence of the tribal groups in the Sarangani uplands will be ensured for a very long time.
The PA6G blue is a polymeric material for great versatility of engineering applications that required good mechanical and tribological properties such as gears. The focus of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties as well as the friction and wear resistance of a commercial PA6G blue under biodegradable external lubrication, to evaluate its potential use for gear applications. Firstly, the PA6G blue was characterized by FTIR analysis in order to identify the characteristic chemical groups of this polymer. The mechanical characterization was performed by tension and hardness tests according to the standards ASTM D638 and ASTM E10, respectively. Subsequently, friction tests were carried out on a tribometer with pin-on-disk configuration based on the ASTM G99 standard, in dry and lubricated conditions. Natural castor and canola oils were employed as bio-lubricants, as well as their mixture at 50% by volume. The results exhibited that the PA6G blue exhibit good mechanical performance as that required by gear fabrications. Besides, the friction performance showed a low friction coefficient of 0.11 in the dry condition that decreased about 50% in lubricated tests, obtaining a friction coefficient value of 0.054.
Among different possible energy sources, in the search for fossil fuel substitutes, hydrogen and fuel cells are presented as one of the most promising alternatives, with great potential, in the development of devices for the generation of clean electrical energy. Recently, lanthanum based compounds have been studied due to their interesting transport properties, which led these products to be applied as possible cathode materials in a solid oxide fuel cell. In this work, a lanthanum based material with a perovskite structure, La0.7Sr0.3Fe0.7Co0.3O3±δ (LSFC), was synthesized, from nitrates, by sonochemistry. This product was structurally characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and morphological studies were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Results showed a nanostructured material with a crystal size in de order of 14 nm and a cubic perovskite structure with cell parameters of a = 3.8927 Å. Morphological characterization indicated a porous material formed by grains of homogeneous size, pores had an average length of 17 nm and area of 36 nm2, showing a channel shape distribution.
Sintering of Si3N4 compounds requires additives that promote densification through the dissolution-precipitation mechanism in liquid phase sintering. The sintering of the Si3N4 with the SiO2-Y2O3-Al2O3 system has been extensively studied. Nevertheless, because SiO2 depends on the natural amount on the Si3N4 surface, little has been studied about SiO2 control. A pre-sintering treatment can increase the content of SiO2 through controlled oxidation of Si3N4. In this work the effect of the additive content on the densification of Si3N4 composite ceramics was evaluated. For this purpose, powder mixtures of Si3N4, Y2O3 and Al2O3 were prepared. The Y2O3 and Al2O3 ratio were modified in percentages of 4, 8 and 12% by weight. The mixtures were compacted and pre-sintered at 1300°C for 1 hour. Then, these were sintered at 1450°C for two hours. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that during pre-sintering, the Y5(SiO4)3N phase is formed; then, it's subsequently oxidized at the sintering stage. A second phase identified as Y3Al5O12 was found in samples with higher proportions of Al2O3. Composition and quantity of the observed phases depend of Y2O3 and Al2O3 proportion in the added additive.
The second and final year of the Erasmus Plus programme ‘Innovative Education and Training in high power laser plasmas’, otherwise known as PowerLaPs, is described. The PowerLaPs programme employs an innovative paradigm in that it is a multi-centre programme, where teaching takes place in five separate institutes with a range of different aims and styles of delivery. The ‘in-class’ time is limited to 4 weeks a year, and the programme spans 2 years. PowerLaPs aims to train students from across Europe in theoretical, applied and laboratory skills relevant to the pursuit of research in laser plasma interaction physics and inertial confinement fusion. Lectures are intermingled with laboratory sessions and continuous assessment activities. The programme, which is led by workers from the Hellenic Mediterranean University and supported by co-workers from the Queen’s University Belfast, the University of Bordeaux, the Czech Technical University in Prague, Ecole Polytechnique, the University of Ioannina, the University of Salamanca and the University of York, has just finished its second and final year. Six Learning Teaching Training activities have been held at the Queen’s University Belfast, the University of Bordeaux, the Czech Technical University, the University of Salamanca and the Institute of Plasma Physics and Lasers of the Hellenic Mediterranean University. The last of these institutes hosted two 2-week-long Intensive Programmes, while the activities at the other four universities were each 5 days in length. In addition, a ‘Multiplier Event’ was held at the University of Ioannina, which will be briefly described. In this second year, the work has concentrated on training in both experimental diagnostics and simulation techniques appropriate to the study of plasma physics, high power laser matter interactions and high energy density physics. The nature of the programme will be described in detail, and some metrics relating to the activities carried out will be presented. In particular, this paper will focus on the overall assessment of the programme.
A student's t-test was applied in carbon nanospheres synthesis from cis-1,4-polyisoprene considering the green chemical principles. The synthesis was carried out by Chemical Vapor Deposition method with a quartz tube reactor using an AISI 304 steel bar as catalyst. It was possible to obtain two types of different samples, one from the surface of the steel bar (catalyst) and another from the quartz tube surface (without catalyst) in the same experiment. Carbon spheres were observed in both samples by micrographs obtained by FESEM. The Raman and FTIR spectroscopies shown characteristic bands of this carbon structures (G and D). The results obtained by student's t-test proved a statistical significance between spheres means of samples collected from steel bar and quartz tube surface.