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The Information and Communications Technology (ICT) sector was born in the twenty-first century out of a consolidation of two major industry sectors of the last century, the telecommunications industry and the computing industry. This book is designated to harness the momentum of the mobile telecommunications industry to a fifth generation of technologies. These technologies will allow completing the consolidation of services, content distribution, communications and computing into a complex distributed environment for connectivity, processing, storage, knowledge and intelligence. This consolidation is responsible for a blurring of roles across the board, with computing and storage being embedded in communication infrastructure, process control being distributed across the Internet and communication functions moving into centralized cloud environments.
Industrial and technological revolution: from steam engines to the Internet
The ICT sector arose out of a natural marriage of telecommunications with the Internet, and is presiding over a tremendous change in the way information and communications services are provisioned and distributed. The massive and widespread adoption of mobile connected devices is further driving deep societal changes with tremendous economic, cultural and technological impact to a society that is becoming more networked and connected. Humanity is going through a phase of a technological revolution that originated with the development of semiconductors and the integrated circuit and continued with the maturing of Information Technology (IT) sector and the development of modern electronic communication in the 1970s and 1980s, respectively. The next frontier in the maturation of the ICT sector is to create an indistinguishable framework for service delivery across a variety of scenarios that span huge variations in demand, including the delivery of personalized media to and from the Internet, incorporating the Internet of Things (IoT) or the Internet of everything into the connected paradigm, and the introduction of security and mobility functions as configurable features for any communication scenario. Some would call it the fourth stage of the Industrial Revolution .
The four stages of the Industrial Revolution are illustrated in Figure 1.1. The first stage of the Industrial Revolution (approximately 1760–1840) started in England with the introduction of the power loom and the steam engine. As a consequence, the agrarian economy of the eighteenth century underwent rapid transformation within decades to an industrial one, dominated by machinery for manufacturing goods.
Written by leading experts in 5G research, this book is a comprehensive overview of the current state of 5G. Covering everything from the most likely use cases, spectrum aspects, and a wide range of technology options to potential 5G system architectures, it is an indispensable reference for academics and professionals involved in wireless and mobile communications. Global research efforts are summarised, and key component technologies including D2D, mm-wave communications, massive MIMO, coordinated multi-point, wireless network coding, interference management and spectrum issues are described and explained. The significance of 5G for the automotive, building, energy, and manufacturing economic sectors is addressed, as is the relationship between IoT, machine type communications, and cyber-physical systems. This essential resource equips you with a solid insight into the nature, impact and opportunities of 5G.
A simulation methodology is needed in the 5G technical work in order to ensure consistency of results obtained, by means of a computer simulation. This methodology must comprise a procedure for calibrating the simulator, guidelines for evaluating, and a mechanism supporting and controlling the validity of the performed simulations. This chapter provides a methodology for simulation to align assumptions. The alignment allows for a direct comparison of different 5G technology components. The chapter is based on the experience of the authors in the simulation work performed in the framework of the International Mobile Telecommunications-Advanced (IMT-Advanced) definition and in METIS . Finally, some relevant test cases and preferred models are introduced.
In this section, methodology guidelines are given to enable consistent performance evaluations. The guidelines may serve as a framework with aligned assumptions, consistent choice of models and simulation reference metrics to ensure that the results can be compared. The results on different levels are not meant to be compared but to be used as possible input, e.g. link-level simulations can be used as input to system-level simulations but should not be compared to them. Below, the main performance indicators, as well as suitable channel and propagation models, are explained and defined. The main characteristics of the evaluation scenarios are out of the scope of this chapter, since they are thoroughly described in Chapter 2.
The main performance indicators to be used in the evaluation of the 5G system are defined and explained hereafter. It should be noted that the material (of the performance indicators) is based on –.
The user throughput is defined as the total amount of received information bits at the receiver divided by the total active session time at the data link layer . Active session time does not include the waiting time at the application layer, e.g. reading time for web-browsing, or back-off time introduced by TCP/IP's traffic control, and therefore it is, in general, different from the session length.
A second definition of the user throughput accounts for the whole session time, instead of only the active session time. Both definitions are equivalent for full buffer traffic model, which does not have neither reading nor back-off times.
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