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The twinning-induced plasticity effect enables designing austenitic Fe-Mn-C-based steels with >70% elongation with an ultimate tensile strength >1 GPa. These steels are characterized by high strain hardening due to the formation of twins and complex dislocation substructures that dynamically reduce the dislocation mean free path. Both mechanisms are governed by the stacking-fault energy (SFE) that depends on composition. This connection between composition and substructure renders these steels ideal model materials for theory-based alloy design: Ab initio-guided composition adjustment is used to tune the SFE, and thus, the strain-hardening behavior for promoting the onset of twinning at intermediate deformation levels where the strain-hardening capacity provided by the dislocation substructure is exhausted. We present thermodynamic simulations and their use in constitutive models, as well as electron microscopy and combinatorial methods that enable validation of the strain-hardening mechanisms.
A necessary prerequisite for a successful theory-guided up-scale design of materials with application-driven elastic properties is the availability of reliable homogenization techniques. We report on a new software tool that enables us to probe and analyze scale-bridging structure-property relations in the elasticity of materials. The newly developed application, referred to as SC-EMA (Self-consistent Calculations of Elasticity of Multi-phase Aggregates) computes integral elastic response of randomly textured polycrystals. The application employs a Python modular library that uses single-crystalline elastic constants Cij as input parameters and calculates macroscopic elastic moduli (bulk, shear, and Young's) and Poisson ratio of both single-phase and multi-phase aggregates. Crystallites forming the aggregate can be of cubic, tetragonal, hexagonal, orthorhombic, or trigonal symmetry. For cubic polycrystals the method matches the Hershey homogenization scheme. In case of multi-phase polycrystalline composites, the shear moduli are computed as a function of volumetric fractions of phases present in aggregates. Elastic moduli calculated using the analytical self-consistent method are computed together with their bounds as determined by Reuss, Voigt and Hashin-Shtrikman homogenization schemes. The library can be used as (i) a toolkit for a forward prediction of macroscopic elastic properties based on known single-crystalline elastic characteristics, (ii) a sensitivity analysis of macro-scale output parameters as function of input parameters, and, in principle, also for (iii) an inverse materials-design search for unknown phases and/or their volumetric ratios.
The aims of this cross-sectional study were to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for carriage of Panton-Valentine leukocidin–producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-MRSA) in residents and personnel of a nursing home in Germany. In this study, PVL-MRSA carriage status among nursing home residents was associated with risk factors reflecting their dependence on nursing care. No specific risk factors were detected among staff.
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