To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Personality may predispose family caregivers to experience caregiving differently in similar situations and influence the outcomes of caregiving. A limited body of research has examined the role of some personality traits for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among family caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) in relation to burden and depression.
Data from a large clinic-based national study in South Korea, the Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease Research (CARE), were analyzed (N = 476). Path analysis was performed to explore the association between family caregivers’ personality traits and HRQoL. With depression and burden as mediating factors, direct and indirect associations between five personality traits and HRQoL of family caregivers were examined.
Results demonstrated the mediating role of caregiver burden and depression in linking two personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) and HRQoL. Neuroticism and extraversion directly and indirectly influenced the mental HRQoL of caregivers. Neuroticism and extraversion only indirectly influenced their physical HRQoL. Neuroticism increased the caregiver's depression, whereas extraversion decreased it. Neuroticism only was mediated by burden to influence depression and mental and physical HRQoL.
Personality traits can influence caregiving outcomes and be viewed as an individual resource of the caregiver. A family caregiver's personality characteristics need to be assessed for tailoring support programs to get the optimal benefits from caregiver interventions.
Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are prevalent incident findings on brain MRI scans among elderly people and have been consistently implicated in cognitive dysfunction. However, differential roles of WMH by region in cognitive function are still unclear. The aim of this study was to ascertain the differential role of regional WMH in predicting progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to different subtypes of dementia.
Participants were recruited from the Clinical Research Center for Dementia of South Korea (CREDOS) study. A total of 622 participants with MCI diagnoses at baseline and follow-up evaluations were included for the analysis. Initial MRI scans were rated for WMH on a visual rating scale developed for the CREDOS. Differential effects of regional WMH in predicting incident dementia were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model.
Of the 622 participants with MCI at baseline, 139 patients (22.3%) converted to all-cause dementia over a median of 14.3 (range 6.0–36.5) months. Severe periventricular WMH (PWMH) predicted incident all-cause dementia (Hazard ratio (HR) 2.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43–3.43) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) (HR 1.86; 95% CI 1.12–3.07). Subcortical vascular dementia (SVD) was predicted by both PWMH (HR 16.14; 95% CI 1.97–132.06) and DWMH (HR 8.77; 95% CI 1.77–43.49) in more severe form (≥ 10 mm).
WMH differentially predict dementia by region and severity. Our findings suggest that PWMH may play an independent role in the pathogenesis of dementia, especially in AD.
Controversy exists over whether Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) commonly occurs in long-term care facility residents who have not been recently transferred from an acute care hospital.
To assess the incidence and outcome of CDI in a long-term care facility.
Retrospective cohort study in a 262-bed long-term care Veterans Affairs facility in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, for the period January 2004 through June 2010. CDI was identified by positive stool C. difficile toxin assay and acute diarrhea. Patients were categorized as hospital-associated CDI (HACDI) or long-term care facility–associated CDI (LACDI) and followed for 6 months.
The annual rate of CDI varied between 0.11 and 0.23 per 1,000 resident-days for HACDI patients and between 0.04 and 0.28 per 1,000 resident-days for LACDI patients. We identified 162 patients, 96 patients (59.3%) with HACDI and 66 patients (40.7%) with LACDI. Median age was 74 and 77 years, respectively, for HACDI and LACDI (P = .055) patients. There were more patients with at least 1 relapse of CDI during 6 months of follow up in LACDI patients (32/66, 48.5%) than in HACDI patients (28/96, 29.2%; P = .009). Logistic regression showed that ages of at least 75 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–5.07; P = .033), more than 2 transfers to an acute care hospital (OR, 7.88; 95% CI, 1.88–32.95; P = .005), and LACDI (OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.41–7.05; P = .005) were associated with relapse of CDI.
Forty percent of CDI cases were acquired within the long-term care facility, indicating a substantial degree of transmission. Optimal strategies to prevent CDI in the long-term care facility are needed.
We evaluated the effects of the two main kiwifruit cultivars (gold kiwifruit (GOK) and green kiwifruit (GRK)) and their active phenolic compound, quercetin, on H2O2-induced inhibition of gap-junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells. We found that both GOK and GRK protect WB-F344 cells from H2O2-induced inhibition of GJIC. The extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)–connexin 43 (Cx43) signalling pathway is crucial for the regulation of GJIC, and both GOK and GRK blocked the H2O2-induced phosphorylation of Cx43 and ERK1/2 in WB-F344 cells. Quercetin alone attenuated the H2O2-mediated ERK1/2–Cx43 signalling pathway and consequently reversed H2O2-mediated inhibition of GJIC in WB-F344 cells. A free radical-scavenging assay using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl showed that the scavenging activity of quercetin was higher than that of a synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene, per mol, suggesting that the chemopreventive effect of quercetin on H2O2-mediated inhibition of ERK1/2–Cx43 signalling and GJIC may be mediated through its free radical-scavenging activity. Since the carcinogenicity of reactive oxygen species such as H2O2 is attributable to the inhibition of GJIC, GOK, GRK and quercetin may have chemopreventive potential by preventing the inhibition of GJIC.
Boron carbide (B4C) is currently used in lightweight armors and high temperature materials, because it has high meting point, good hardness, low specific gravity and good mechanical properties. The sintering of boron carbide, however, is restricted by its high covalent bonding and B2O3 coatings on B4C particles surface which can cause a microstructural coarsening during sintering. Therefore, it is necessary to remove B2O3 film of By4C particles surface to restrict microstructural coarsening and densification of B4C. B4C ceramics were fabricated by a hot-press sintering and its sintering behavior, microstructure and mechanical properties were evaluated. The relative density of B4C ceramics were obtained by a hot-press sintering reached as high as 99% without any sintering additives. The mechanical properties of B4C ceramics was improved by a methanol washing which can remove B2O3 phase from a B4C powder surface. This improvement is resulted from the formation of homogeneous microstructure because the grain coarsening was suppressed by the elimination of B2O3 phase. Particularly, the mechanical properties of the sintered samples using a methanol washed powder improved compared with the samples using an as-received commercial powder.
We report the failure mode observed in polymer EL blue device. Such modes were analyzed by non-destructive and destructive ways. As a non-destructive way, investigation of mobility changes of hole and electron, measuring transient EL corresponding to life curve, had been done. We also observed compositional and morphological variation using TEM-EDX, STM, FT-IR, TOF-SIMS and reverse engineering method as a destructive way. Electron mobility has a higher dependency on life curve, which fact could be reflected on the formation of insoluble layer inside emitting layer on anode side. And such insoluble layer showed relatively ordered surface morphology, and might be a cross-linked layer through C-O-C bond cleavage process while EL operation. But, contrary to sulfur migration mechanism into insoluble layer insisted by CDT, we did confirm no obvious difference of sulfur composition between insoluble and emitting layers. Rather, there's some degree of Ba diffusion into emitting layer from decomposition of BaF2, but, which dose not have a major effect on device degradation.
Ln(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 (Ln = Dy, La, Nd, Pr, Sm, Y) compositions have been prepared, and their pertinent properties for use as thin film substrates for YBa2Cu3Ox (YBCO) were measured. X-ray diffraction shows that Ln(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 compositions have noncubic symmetry and the GdFeO3-type structure. Dielectric constant measurements revealed values between 22 and 27, which are larger than those of the LnAlO3 family. Quality factor (=1/ tan δ) of the ceramic specimens measured at room temperature was larger than 3000 at 10 GHz. Among the compounds, La(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 exhibited the highest dielectric constant and the lowest dielectric loss. Chemical reaction was observed between Ln(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 (Ln = Dy, Sm, Y) and YBCO after annealing a 1 : 1 mixture at 950 °C. Considering dielectric and physical properties, La(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 and Sm(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 were determined to be suitable substrates for YBCO thin film used in microwave applications.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.